The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America, and Britain and its colonies, especially Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), Nova Scotia and Bermuda. When the war had finished, 1,600 British and 2,260 American troops had died. The British and American forces also suffered 3,679 and 4,505 wounded, respectively. It is noteworthy that these "official" figures do not include losses due to diseases and casualties among American or Canadian militia forces, or losses among allied native tribes. The war was fought from 1812 to 1815 and involved both land and naval engagements. Britain was at war with France. To impede American trade with France, it imposed a series of restrictions that the U.S. contested as illegal under international law. The Americans declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812 for a combination of reasons: outrage at the impressment of thousands of American sailors into the Royal Navy, frustration at British restraints on neutral trade, and anger at British military support for Native Americans defending their tribal lands from encroaching American settlers.