Open-mid back rounded vowel

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Open-mid back rounded vowel
IPA Number306
Entity (decimal)ɔ
Unicode (hex)U+0254
Braille⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
Audio sample

The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɔ⟩. The IPA symbol is a turned letter c and both the symbol and the sound are commonly called "open-o". The name open-o represents the sound, in that it is like the sound represented by ⟨o⟩, the close-mid back rounded vowel, except it is more open. It also represents the symbol, which can be remembered as an o which has been "opened" by removing part of the closed circular shape.



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] հողմ [hɔʁm] 'storm'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɒ⟩.[3]
Bengali[4] অর্থ [ɔrt̪ʰo] 'meaning' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[5] род [rɔt̪] 'kin' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[6] soc [ˈsɔk] 'clog' See Catalan phonology
Cipu Tirisino dialect[7] kødø [kɔ̟̀ɗɔ̟́] 'cut down!' Near-back.[8]
Danish Standard[9][10] kort [ˈkʰɔːd̥] 'short' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɒː⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[11] och About this sound[ʔɔˤx]  'alas' 'Very tense, with strong lip-rounding',[12] strongly pharyngealized[13] (although less so in standard Belgian[14]) and somewhat fronted.[11][15] See Dutch phonology
Standard Northern[15]
English Australian[16] not About this sound[nɔt]  'not' See Australian English phonology
New Zealand[18] May be somewhat fronted.[19] Often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɒ⟩. See New Zealand English phonology
Received Pronunciation[20] /ɒ/ has shifted up in emerging RP.
General American thought [θɔːt] 'thought' Mainly in speakers without the cot–caught merger. It may be lower [ɒ]. (It is rarely lowered to /ɒ/ in before liquids /l ɹ/, and may thus be more familiar to many North Americans in r-colored form, /ɔ˞/.)
Older Received Pronunciation[22] Higher [ɔ̝ː] for most other speakers.
Scottish[23] Many Scottish dialects exhibit the cot-caught merger, the outcome of which is a vowel of [ɔ] quality.
Sheffield[24] goat [ɡɔːt] 'goat' Common realization of the GOAT vowel particularly for males.
Newfoundland[25] but [bɔt] 'but' Less commonly unrounded [ʌ].[25] See English phonology
Faroese[26] toldi [ˈtʰɔltɪ] 'endured' See Faroese phonology
French[27][28] sort [sɔːʁ] 'fate' The Parisian realization has been variously described as back [ɔ][27] and near-back [ɔ̟].[28] See French phonology
Galician home [ˈɔmɪ] 'man' See Galician phonology
Georgian[29] სწრი [st͡sʼɔɾi] 'correct'
German Standard[30] voll About this sound[fɔl]  'full' See Standard German phonology
Some speakers[31] Mutter [ˈmutɔʕ̞] 'mother' Common allophone of /ə/ before the pharyngeal approximant realization of /r/. Occurs in East Central Germany, Southwestern Germany, parts of Switzerland and in Tyrol.[31] See Standard German phonology
Italian[32] parola About this sound[päˈrɔ̟ːlä]  'word' Near-back.[32] See Italian phonology
Kaingang[33] [ˈpɔ] 'stone'
Kera[34] [dɔ̟̀l] 'hard earth' Near-back.[34]
Kokborok kwrwi [kɔrɔi] 'not'
Limburgish[35][36] mòn [mɔːn] 'moon' Lower [ɔ̞ː] in the Maastrichtian dialect.[37] The example word is from the Hasselt dialect.
Lower Sorbian[38] osba [ˈpʂɔz̪bä] 'a request'
Low German Most dialects stok [stɔk] 'stick' May be more open [ɒ] in the Netherlands or more closed [o̞] in East Prussian dialects.
Various dialects slaap [slɔːp] 'sleep' May be as low as [ɒː] and as high as [oː] in other dialects.
Southern Eastphalian brâd[39] [brɔːt] 'bread' Corresponds to [oː], [ou̯], [ɔu̯], [ɛo̯] in other dialects.
Luxembourgish[40] Sonn [zɔn] 'son' Possible realization of /o/.[40] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Some dialects[41] så [sɔː] 'so' Present e.g. in Telemark; realized as mid [ɔ̝ː] in other dialects.[41] See Norwegian phonology
Oriya ହଁ [hɔ̃] 'yes'
Polish[42] kot About this sound[kɔt̪]  'cat' See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most dialects[43][44] fofoca [fɔˈfɔ̞kɐ] 'gossip' Stressed vowel might be lower. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨o⟩ allophones, such as [ o ʊ u], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[45] bronca [ˈbɾɔ̃kə] 'scolding' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /õ̞/. See Portuguese phonology
Russian Some speakers[46] сухой [s̪ʊˈxɔj] 'dry' More commonly realized as mid [].[46] See Russian phonology
Temne[47] pɔn [pɔ̟̀n] 'swamp' Near-back.[47]
Ukrainian[48] любов [lʲuˈbɔw] 'love' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[38][49] pos [pɔs̪] 'dog' See Upper Sorbian phonology
West Frisian[50] rôt [rɔːt] 'rat' See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[51] k [ɔkɔ] 'husband' Nasalized; may be near-open [ɔ̞̃] instead.[51]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Khan (2010:222)
  5. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999:56)
  6. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  7. ^ McGill (2014), pp. 308–309.
  8. ^ McGill (2014), p. 308.
  9. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  10. ^ Basbøll (2005:47)
  11. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005:245)
  12. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132)
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132, 222 and 224)
  14. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:222)
  15. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  16. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  17. ^ Wells (1982:305)
  18. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009)
  19. ^ Bauer et al. (2007:98)
  20. ^ Wikström (2013:45), "It seems to be the case that younger RP or near-RP speakers typically use a closer quality, possibly approaching Cardinal 6 considering that the quality appears to be roughly intermediate between that used by older speakers for the LOT vowel and that used for the THOUGHT vowel, while older speakers use a more open quality, between Cardinal Vowels 13 and 6."
  21. ^ Lodge (2009:168)
  22. ^ Wells (1982:293)
  23. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  24. ^ Stoddart, Upton & Widdowson:74)
  25. ^ a b Wells (1982:498)
  26. ^ Árnason (2011:68, 75)
  27. ^ a b Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  28. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2013:225)
  29. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:261–262)
  30. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34)
  31. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:51)
  32. ^ a b Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  33. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  34. ^ a b Pearce (2011:251)
  35. ^ Verhoeven (2007:221)
  36. ^ Peters (2006:118–119)
  37. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:158–159)
  38. ^ a b Stone (2002:600)
  39. ^ Schambach, Gerog (1858), "Wörterbuch der niederdeutschen Mundart der Fürstenthümer Göttingen und Grubenhagen oder GöttingischGrubenhagen'sches Idiotikon", p. 30.
  40. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  41. ^ a b Popperwell (2010:26)
  42. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  43. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  44. ^ Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica – Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de Oliveira Archived 2014-12-15 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese)
  46. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969:56)
  47. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  48. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  49. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984:20)
  50. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  51. ^ a b Bamgboṣe (1969:166)


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External links[edit]