May 1, 2015 Jalisco attacks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
May 1, 2015 Jalisco attacks
Part of Mexican Drug War
Jalisco en México.svg
State of Jalisco in Mexico
Date May 1, 2015
6:30 a.m. – 6:00 p.m. (approximately)
Location Jalisco (most attacks); some parts of Colima, Nayarit, Michoacán, and Guanajuato (in western Mexico)
Caused by Attempted capture of Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes (alias "El Mencho")
Parties to the civil conflict

On May 1, 2015, the Jalisco New Generation Cartel (CJNG) carried out a series of attacks in Jalisco and four of its adjacent states to prevent the capture of their suspected leader, Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes (alias "El Mencho"). The operation began early that morning in Villa Purificación, where four Mexican Air Force and Federal Police helicopters spotted a CJNG convoy protecting El Mencho. As one of the helicopters flew over the convoy, the CJNG members shot it down using rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launchers. 9 law enforcement officers died as a result of the attack, and multiple others were wounded. This incident was unprecedented in the Mexican Drug War since organized crime groups in Mexico had never successfully shot down an aircraft.

As the government extended its crackdown on the CJNG, it issued its highest security alert level and coordinated all three levels of government. The CJNG responded to the offensive by hijacking 39 buses, trucks, and cars throughout western Mexico, setting them on fire, and using them to block roads and highways in multiple locations. They also burned several gasoline stations, banks, and businesses. Most of the attacks took place in Guadalajara, Jalisco's capital and the second-largest urban area in Mexico. According to the government, the scale and level of coordination by the CJNG in this attack had not been displayed by other crime groups in Mexico.

The attacks garnered international headlines and reactions from the highest levels of the Mexican government, including President Enrique Peña Nieto, who promised that he would dismantle the CJNG's leadership structure. Mexico's National Security Commission placed significant attention on El Mencho, and publicly announced that they were making his arrest a priority. Over the course of a year, violence and homicides increased in Jalisco. However, as the government shifted its attention in 2016 to re-apprehend Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán, once Mexico's most-wanted drug lord, the CJNG readjusted its strategy and toned down its violent methods.

Helicopter attack[edit]

Before dawn at around 6:30 a.m. on May 1, 2015, an armed convoy from the Jalisco New Generation Cartel (CJNG), a criminal group based in Jalisco, made their way from Casimiro Castillo to Villa Purificación through several dirt roads.[1][2] The vehicles drove with their headlights off to avoid the attention of Mexican Air Force and the Federal Police (PF), who were doing an air surveillance of the area in four helicopters.[a][4] One of the vehicles was equipped with rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launchers.[b][1] As the helicopters flew over the convoy,[c] the CJNG units opened fire at them from the ground.[7] One of the helicopters, a Cougar EC725 carrying eighteen passengers, was hit on its tail and shot down with a Russian-made RPG-27 rocket launcher.[d] Once hit, the helicopter spun several times in the air as it tried to maneuver its way back into trajectory. It then fell at a distance from where it was struck and exploded.[e][11] The helicopter was shot six times and was hit twice;[12] the gunmen tried shooting down another helicopter, but they were unable to strike it with their RPG launchers.[8] The CJNG gunmen then made their way to where the helicopter crashed and attempted to execute any remaining living passengers. However, military reinforcements in the air prevented the criminal group from getting close to the collision scene and forced them to retreat.[f][14] Nine passengers were killed as a result of the airstrike: eight from the Mexican Army and one from the PF.[15] Some of the soldiers killed were part of the Cuerpo de Fuerzas Especiales, the elite and special forces unit of the Army.[16][17] The other passengers were taken to the Regional Military Hospitals in Guadalajara to receive medical attention.[g][20] Their health conditions were not made public.[15][21]

Though the death toll of the helicopter attack ended up at nine,[22] not all of them were recorded at once.[23] When the attack occurred, the Mexican government confirmed that three military men were killed.[24] They also stated that three additional Army soldiers remained missing,[h][25] while the remaining twelve passengers (ten from the Army and two from the PF) were recorded as wounded.[26] During the first 24 hours, their search was contained in a 100 metres (330 ft) radius, but investigators extended their search past that after they were unable to locate them.[27] For three days, the federal and state forces searched the area where the helicopter was attacked and where it landed to search for the missing passengers.[28] On May 4, the government confirmed that they located them.[29] They were able to identify their corpses by conducting DNA tests since their bodies were severely damaged and torn into pieces as a result of the helicopter's explosion.[30] This increased the death toll to six.[31] On May 6, the seventh passenger from the Army died of cardiac arrest as a result of the wounds he suffered from the helicopter's fall.[32] The following day, one of the PF passengers died from his wounds.[33] On May 10, the last victim of the attack, a soldier from the Army, died at a hospital. Authorities confirmed that four other passengers had been discharged from the hospital after treatment. Five more remained in the hospital receiving medical attention.[34]

Following the helicopter attack, the PF and military personnel cordoned the area and conducted a thorough search of the premises.[35] They initially discovered four abandoned vehicles that they suspected were owned by the perpetrators.[36][37] In the vehicles, investigators discovered military uniforms with the insignias "CJNG Special Forces High Command" with five embedded stars.[i][12] No immediate arrests were made.[39] The Army seized several weapons from the CJNG, including 15 assault rifles, 6 handguns, 2 RPG launchers, 2 LAW rocket launchers, 10 rocket launcher missiles, 5 hand grenades, 92 chargers for multiple weapons, and 3,800 cartridges of different weapon calibers.[40] Several of these weapons were illegal for civilians in Mexico because they were of exclusive use for the Mexican Armed Forces. Authorities also seized radio communication equipment, several bullet-proof vests, and nine vehicles. One of the vehicles was equipped with tools to carry a RPG launcher. Investigators handed these items over to the SEIDO, Mexico's anti-organized crime investigatory agency.[41] In addition to notifying the press of the seized items, they also stated that they were planning to carry out a homage to honor their comrades who were killed in the helicopter attack.[42] At the helicopter collision scene, several Army soldiers made a cross with wires and tied it to a tree close to where their comrades died. The cross had the logo of the special forces unit.[17]

For almost 24 hours, the area where the helicopter was shot down remained abandoned. The smog from the helicopter's crash lasted a few hours, and several of the helicopter's pieces scattered as far as 250 metres (820 ft) from each other. The Army was the first group to arrive at the scene and cordoned the area. They erected three camps in surrounding premises and closed down the perimeter to allow investigators to collect evidences of the attack. Villa Purificación's entrances and exists were fortified with Army checkpoints; the soldiers conducted car searches to vehicles leaving and entering the town. Other Army units patrolled the streets of the town and nearby highways in search of the suspects. Besides Villa Purificación, which had the largest military presence, the two other towns with the largest Army presence were Autlán and Unión de Tula.[1]

Roadblocks and arsons[edit]

As the government extended throughout Jalisco to crackdown the CJNG's offensive,[43] violence erupted in 25 of its municipalities and in four of Jalisco's surrounding states: Colima, Nayarit, Michoacán, and Guanajuato.[44][45] In these areas, the CJNG hijacked 39 vehicles and established roadblocks using cars, trucks, and transportation buses.[j][48] 36 of the 39 hijacked vehicles were set on fire by the CJNG.[49][50] According to eyewitnesses, the CJNG got a hold of the vehicles by pointing their weapons at drivers on the road and forcing them to a complete stop. They would then hijack the vehicles, spray them with gasoline on the inside, and set them on fire.[51] The tactic of setting up roadblocks is a common practice of the CJNG and other organized crime groups in Mexico.[52] Its purpose is to halt the mobility of security forces on the road and prevent them from arresting their members.[53] In particular, the CJNG had used the roadblocks in a large scale at least three times since 2012 in an apparent attempt to create confusion after strategic arrests.[54] However, the attacks of May 1 surpassed the previous attacks in terms of magnitude and coordination.[55] According to reports from National Security Commission (CNS) (es), approximately 250 CJNG members participated in the attacks and acted in an organized way. The level of coordination seen in this attack had not been by the government before.[56] In addition to burning vehicles and setting up numerous blockades,[57] the CJNG also burned several banks, gasoline stations, and businesses across western Mexico.[k][58]

Thousands of people were left stranded across major highways and streets since they were unable to get to their destinations because of the attacks.[61] The roads in Guadalajara and the surrounding metropolitan area were the most affected by the attacks and roadblocks.[62] Civilians posted videos and photos of the burning vehicles on social media,[63] and government officials used this platform as well to update civilians and warn them of the risk situations.[l][65] The government asked civilians to avoid rumors on social media and only rely on official information coming from them.[66] The severity of the attacks forced the Government of Jalisco to activate its "Red Code" alert,[67] a designation used to warn citizens of risk situations across the state.[68] This alert is the highest level in the alert system and is used when the state is considered to be under the highest level of danger.[69] With the activation of the red alert, Governor Jorge Aristóteles Sandoval Díaz confirmed that municipal and state forces were coordinating efforts with the federal government.[70] He told the public that he informed President Enrique Peña Nieto (2012–2018) of the attacks early in the day, and that the President assigned Secretary of Interior Miguel Ángel Osorio Chong to communicate on his behalf.[71]

By the end of the day, Jalisco and its surroundings states were restored to normality,[70] but Jalisco authorities recommended its citizens to remain indoors if they had no obligation to go out to the streets.[72] The red alert lasted until May 3, and the government issued a preventative security phase following the red alert's cancellation.[73] The government clarified that the coordinated efforts of all three levels of government continued uninterrupted despite the cancellation.[74] Governor Sandoval Díaz denied that the additional federal forces in Jalisco meant that the state was being militarized.[75] The government confirmed that in addition to the passengers killed in Villa Purificación, 8 suspected CJNG members and a state police officer from Autlán were killed in other clashes derived from the May 1 attacks.[76][77] Several state and federal police officers were reported wounded in confrontations in Jalisco and other states.[77][78]

The day of the attacks, the U.S. Consulate in Guadalajara issued multiple security warnings through its Facebook page and on its website.[79][80] They reported that there were several blockades across Jalisco and Colima, and that there were vehicles, gasolines, banks, and other buildings set on fire during the attacks.[81] It warned its employees in Jalisco about the attacks and blockades, and asked them to remain at home until the situation was resolved by law enforcement.[82] Their warning also extended to U.S. tourist planning to visit Jalisco, and asked them to avoid visiting the area.[79] They asked U.S. citizens to look out for any public announcements by the Mexican government.[83] The consulate was closed for International Workers' Day (celebrated on May 1), but they said they were re-opening their offices on Monday, May 4.[82] The warning concluded by suggesting U.S. citizens traveling or living in Mexico to consult the alerts and warnings page at the website of the U.S. Department of State.[81] The Embassy of Canada, Mexico City also warned Canadians to stay home and limit their outdoor activities.[84]

Background and possible motives[edit]

According to the Mexican government, the attacks of that day were one of the most brazen moves by organized crime against Mexican security forces in the ongoing Mexican Drug War (2006–present).[85][86] The attack was also unique in the sense that a relatively new criminal group in Mexico like that CJNG was willing to confront the government head-on.[86] Though organized crime groups in Mexico had used rocket launchers against security forces in the past,[87] it was the first time in history that they had shot down a military aircraft.[88][89] That attacks of that day showed the government that the CJNG had the manpower and operational capacity to respond against the crackdowns and efforts of the Mexican government.[90][91] The CJNG's influence in Mexico's criminal landscape grew significantly since 2009–2010.[86] The group was formed as a splinter organization of the Milenio Cartel and Sinaloa Cartel after several of its leaders were arrested or killed.[92] Their international drug trafficking operations, specifically for heroin and methamphetamine, increased the group's financial power and capacity.[93] Their market share growth in Mexican territory was also correlated to the arrest and deaths of their rival criminal group leaders like the Knights Templar Cartel and Los Zetas.[86] The CJNG's stronghold, Jalisco, gave the group a strategic advantage from its competitors since Jalisco ranked high in industrial output and gross domestic product (GDP).[94][95]

The attacks reached international headlines prompted reactions in the highest levels of the Mexican government.[96] President Peña Nieto told the public that day through his Twitter account that the criminal group responsible for the acts of violence, the CJNG, would be dismantled by the government.[97] Mexico's security commissioner Monte Alejandro Rubido García (es) told reporters in an interview after the helicopter attack that the government would spend significant resources to capture Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes (alias "El Mencho"), the top leader of the CJNG.[98] The government's urgency to confront the CJNG intensified the month before, when the CJNG ambushed and killed 15 policemen in Jalisco.[99] The same day the attacks occurred,[100] the government inaugurated Operation Jalisco, a military-led campaign that intended to combat organized crime groups in Jalisco and capture their respective leaders.[101] The new security operation was made up of the Army, the PF, the Attorney General's Office (PGR), and Center for Research and National Security (CISEN), Mexico's national intelligence agency.[102] The main target of the operation was the CJNG.[103] Around 10,000 new troops and 300 armored vehicles were dispatched to the state for Operation Jalisco on May 10 and 11.[104]

The helicopter attack and the roadblocks were a response by the CJNG for the attempted capture of El Mencho.[m][106] The government also claimed that the violence in Jalisco was a reaction to Operation Jalisco.[91] According to sources from the PF, prior to the helicopter attack, El Mencho was spotted in Tonaya, Jalisco, which prompted a law enforcement offensive to apprehend him. His gunmen defended him from the PF and he was able to escape.[107] The helicopter that was shot down was equipped with parachutes that were intended to be used by the officers on board. They were planning to jump off and continue their operation on foot with the goal of capturing El Mencho.[n][109] Unconfirmed federal and state sources said that someone within law enforcement notified the CJNG of the surprise operation against him. They said the government confirmed this through wiretapping. The sources stated that the CJNG had detected unusual law enforcement activity in the area where El Mencho was hiding, but they did not have clear information on the operative against him until it was leaked by an insider.[110] When the roadblocks occurred, rumors circulated that El Mencho was arrested by security forces.[111] Law enforcement confirmed that they were close to capturing El Mencho,[o][112] but did not confirm him among the detainees arrested that day.[p][115] The government considers El Mencho the main suspect and mastermind of the May 1 attacks.[116]

Government reactions and aftermath[edit]

At 1 p.m. on May 1, President Peña Nieto made an official announcement on social media regarding the helicopter attack. He stated that he lamented the death of the soldiers killed "in the line of duty", and thanked the courage of the federal forces in combating organized crime.[117] Osorio Chong also expressed his condolesnces through social media.[118] In addition, several high-ranking officials in the Army and Air Force expressed their condolences to the families.[119] In the following days, Peña Nieto met with the families of the helicopter attack victims in private.[120][121] On May 4, the government held a ceremony at Campo Marte in Mexico City, where Peña Nieto headed a flag ceremony with the Military Service volunteers. In his speech, he thanked the Mexican Armed Forces for "risking their lives" for working to maintain peace in Mexico, and stated that the attacks from organized crime only made the government's efforts stronger. He clarified that the government had arrested or killed in action most of Mexico's most-wanted criminals.[122] Two days later, the President held another ceremony at the Campo Militar 1-F along with the special forces General Miguel Ángel Aguirre Lara. Peña Nieto offered his condolences to the family members and gave them a Mexican flag.[123]

In an interview at the World Economic Forum in the Riviera Maya on May 7, Sandoval Díaz stated that the attacks of May 1 were "acts of vandalism" and not signs of narcoterrorism.[124] He stated that the word "narcoterrorism" was not defined under Mexican law and thereby did not carry legal weight.[125] He argued that the detainees arrested that day were under the influence of drugs and were paid between MXN$500 and MXN$1,000 to commit the attacks. When asked whether there was a leak information from the police's side to the CJNG, he stated that he was not aware of any illegal intelligence sharing between law enforcement and organized crime. A reporter asked him whether the helicopter attack counted as vandalism too, and he clarified that that attack was different from the roadblocks and arsons reported elsewhere in Jalisco.[126] He also stated that it was not the government's intention to minimize the incidents of May 1 by not categorizing them as terrorist acts. Sandoval Díaz argued that the CJNG placed roadblocks to create chaos among the civil population and to cause confusion within law enforcement's mobility. He explained that the roadblocks forced security forces to divide their units to restore order and clear up the streets, thus allowing the CJNG members to escape persecution.[125] He attributed the root cause of the violence to the balkanization of organized crime groups in Jalisco and the nearby regions.[127] His remarks, however, drew criticism after the media considered that the government was being dismissive of the severity of the attacks.[128]

On May 8, suspected members of the CJNG put up a banner near a Los Niños Héroes monument in Autlán threatening federal forces stationed there.[129] They gave them an ultimatum by saying that they had one month to leave the town before they take action.[130] "We will kill every soldier we see in the street," the banner read.[128] The government took the threat seriously and reacted by tightening security in Autlán, the coastal region of Jalisco, and in the southern part of the state. The banner was supposedly signed by four suspected CJNG local leaders known by their aliases "El 24", "El 7", "Japo", and "Vaquero".[130] These banners are commonly used by organized crime groups as propaganda.[128]

On May 10, federal forces revisited Villa Purificación, where the helicopter attack occurred, in several choppers. They were accompanied by additional troops on the ground. On May 11, Governor Sandoval Díaz held a meeting at El Grullo with several mayors from Región Costa Sur and Región Sierra de Amula (es), two regions in Jalisco. Among those present was Jalisco's secretary general Roberto López Lara and Army General Miguel Gustavo González Cruz, the head of Operation Jalisco. Outside of the building where they met, the police dispatched snipers in nearby roofs while the military mounted a checkpoint in the town's entrance. In the meeting, Sandóval Díaz told the mayors that the Jalisco State Police was taking over the municipal police forces' duties under the rationale that the local police was not equipped to deal with organized crime infiltration.[130]

On June 8, the Army issued a posthumous promotion to eight of its members who were killed in the helicopter attack.[131] Among them were two Army infantry captains, an Air Force pilot, an Army infantry lieutenant, an Air Force sub-lieutenant, two second-degree Army infantry sergeants, and another Air Force member. The promotion also included another military-police member killed in an unrelated incident in Tamaulipas.[132] This action was signed and approved by Salvador Cienfuegos Zepeda, the head of the Secretariat of National Defense.[133] The victims were granted this promotion because the government considered that their "exceptionally meritorious" service prior to their death showed that they were loyal to their duty.[134] The purpose of the promotion was to provide moral and economical support to the victim's families, as well as highlight the commitment of the troops.[135] On December 23, Peña Nieto awarded Iván Morales Corrales, one of the PF survivors, a medal for his heroism. Morales suffered 70 degree burns in his body and nearly died after damaging internal and external organs, The ceremony took place at the National Auditorium in Mexico City and over 10,000 PF members were in attendance, in addition to the victim's family members.[136]

Peaceful protests[edit]

On May 9, around 1,000 civilians in Guadalajara dressed in white and conducted a 3.2 kilometres (2.0 mi) silent march. The march started in Providencia neighborhood in western Guadalajara and ended at La Minerva (es), one of the city's main monuments.[137] It was organized online under the hashtag #CaminataPorLaPazGDL.[q] According to the march organizers, the purpose of the movement was to bring peace awareness in light of the incidents that occurred on May 1.[r][142] They also asked citizens to self-reflect their behavior in society and analyze what they have done to promote change. The organizers stated that they were not part of any belief system, foundation, political group, or organization.[138] Several celebrities from Guadalajara promoted the march through social media.[s] The march included people from various age groups; entire families were also recorded in attendance. There were also several sport, business, and religious groups present.[137] They were guarded by the Guadalajara Municipal Police, the Jalisco State Police, and the Civil Protection and Fire Brigade corporations.[145] Once civilians reached La Minerva, they adorned it with flowers and candles. There were about 1,500 civilians by the end of the march.[146] Several of the activists present spoke to the media and explained that they or their family members were victims of violence in Jalisco in the past. Others explained that they were marching because they were tired of the violent incidents in their home state.[137] The movement ended after those present sang the Mexican National Anthem and played a video recording of a child who advocated honesty as a means for peace. "Peace starts in each and everyone one of us" was the final quote of the recording.[147]

On May 14, multiple civil organizations got together in Mexico City and announced their plan to organize another silent march for Jalisco in the city on May 31.[148] This announcement was made two days after the PGR confirmed that the CJNG operated in Mexico City.[149] The groups responsible for organizing the event issued a declaration for why they were joining the cause. The declaration said that they repudiated the violence caused by the CJNG in Jalisco, and acknowledged that the attacks they carried out against the Mexican government on May 1 were serious and dangerous. They also expressed their solidarity with the families of the passengers killed in the helicopter attack, and issued their support of the Mexican Armed Forces in their combat against organized crime to restore peace in Jalisco and the rest of Mexico.[150] Aside from supporting the government's cause, the organizers also asked federal and states authorities to work towards fighting impunity and corruption.[151] On the day of the march, 300 civilians gathered at the Angel of Independence statue and started their march through Paseo de la Reforma and headed towards Campo Marte, where they ended their march at the newly inaugurated Memorial to Victims of Violence and held a moment of silence for the passengers killed.[152][153]

Continued violence[edit]

On May 19, 2015, rumors spread that the Army was involved in a shootout with suspected organized crime members in Villa Purificación.[t][155] The death toll that circulated was 8 civilians dead.[156] The state government clarified that those killed were involved in the attacks of May 1.[155] According to accounts from several families from Villa Purificación,[157] however, some of their relatives went missing after the May 1 attacks.[158] They suspected that the 8 civilians reported as "killed" that day were possibly related to this incident.[159][160] According to their testimonies, the Army was involved in several shootouts with suspected organized crime members in their town after May 1, resulting in dozens of locals killed. The families claimed that the Army took the corpses of the civilians killed—close to 40—and piled them in the wilderness for two weeks.[161][162] One of the family members said she tried to go to the area where the bodies were reportedly located, but several soldiers prevented her from going any further and threatened to arrest her. The families said that their relatives were not involved with organized crime and had nothing to do with the May 1 attacks.[162]

One of the family members told investigators that civilians in Villa Purificación were scared to reach out to the government for help because they feared reprisals from the Army. They said that they believe the Army summarily executed civilians out of rage for the incidents that occurred on May 1 in Villa Purificación. The families also said that the Army was not letting cattle ranchers give water to their livestock in order to kill them, and asked President Peña Nieto to intervene in the incidents.[163] One of the family members who supposedly approached the military men guarding the bodies told the press that when he asked a soldier if she could get close to the bodies to see if any of them corresponded to her missing relative, the soldier told her that they were not getting their bodies back and that they would let the corpses rot. The lady claimed that the soldier told her that they killed those people because they were responsible for death of their comrades.[164][165]

This case was first reviewed by the PGR in Jalisco, and was then pushed to the SEIDO in Mexico City because this agency was the one responsible for investigating this case. The lawyer of the families criticized the government's decision to move the case to the SEIDO because it "victimized" them.[163] He also stated that the families were of low-income backgrounds and did not have the resources to go to Mexico City. The lawyer stated that the families went to the forensic medical services installations in Guadalajara to see several bodies the government had sent from Villa Purificación. Although they gave DNA samples at the PGR offices in Jalisco to see if any of the corpses at the morgue matched their samples, investigators told them that they lacked legal jurisdiction and that the DNA results could only be given to them in Mexico City.[166] The lawyer stated that there were verbal accounts that civilians in Villa Purificación were tortured and extrajudicially killed by security forces. He also questioned the government's delay in bringing the bodies to Guadalajara, since believed that this gave investigators an excuse to not investigate the highly decomposed bodies.[167] He also stated that it would be impossible for investigators to prove those killed used any weapons on May 1 or were part of the CJNG.[168]

On May 21, the families attempted to put forward a writ of amparo and accused the government of violating their rights by putting unnecessary barriers and forcing them to visit Mexico City to see the results of the DNA samples.[168] On May 24, the families pushed their case to Mexico's National Human Rights Commission (CNDH) to help them retrieve the DNA samples from the PGR in Jalisco. The CNDH told the lawyer that the families no longer had to go to Mexico City for the DNA samples and that they could do the procedures in Jalisco.[169] The government was able to confirm the identity of 3 of the 8 civilians killed.[170] They stated that their DNA samples matched those of the family members,[171] but clarified that these people were killed in clashes with security forces on May 1 and not on May 19.[155] The families of Villa Purificación contested the government's final decision, and stated that between May and May 19, dozens of people were killed in the town. They claimed that the Army safeguarded the morgues to prevent civilians from seeing the bodies and identifying them.[172] On May 22, the families of the missing people returned to Villa Purificación.[173]

According to the Jalisco Institute of Forensic Sciences, a branch of the Government of Jalisco, violence between organized crime groups and security forces increased in Jalisco after the May 1. From that date to April 25, 2016, Jalisco registered 1,195 homicides. The year before the attacks, from May 1, 2014 to April 30, 2015, only 1,094 homicides were registered. This meant that violence in Jalisco increased nine percent in a year after the May 1 attacks. According to the state government, the increase in violence was an aftermath caused by the arrests carried out by security forces against the criminal groups' leadership structures, as organized crime groups are destabilized and have to restructure – often violently – after their leaders are taken down.[174] In 2016 alone, Jalisco recorded 1,152 homicides, compared to 1,017 in 2015.[175] Of the 2016 amount, 786 of them were done with firearms: 223 of them were recorded in Guadalajara, 123 in Zapopan, 94 in Tlajomulco de Zúñiga, 62 in Tlaquepaque, and the remaining figures in other municipalities. In addition, around 5,000 car thefts were reported in Jalisco that year.[176]

Investigation and crackdowns[edit]

Following the attacks of May 1, the government arrested 19 people who they suspected participated in the attacks.[177][178] One of the suspects was injured after engaging in a gunfight with an officer from the Jalisco State Police,[179] and was under arrest at the hospital. He was shot in the head after reportedly hijacking and setting a vehicle on fire. The officer who confronted him was also injured in the thorax but was reported as stable.[180] A few days later, the state government confirmed that the number of detainees went down to 11,[181] which included one minor.[182] The Jalisco Attorney General, Luis Carlos Nájera Gutiérrez de Velasco, confirmed that the eight other detainees were released after they were found not guilty.[183][184] Of the 11 detainees, 6 of them were accused of terrorism and organized crime charges for participating in the car hijackings and arsons. Four additional suspects were charged with oil theft, which where then used to facilitate the arsons coordinated by the other suspects.[185] On May 6, the PGR formally charged 5 suspects for illegal possession of firearms of exclusive military-use, attempted murder, and organized crime involvement.[186] The next day, a judge ordered the release of 3 suspects after concluding that they were arrested illegally and not given a right to counsel during their confessions.[187] On July 22, another suspect was arrested in Tlaquepaque for his suspected participation in the May 1 attacks.[188][189]

On May 15, 2015, the Government of Jalisco disarmed the municipal police forces of Villa Purificación and Unión de Tula.[190] Villa Purificación had 19 police officers and one police chief, while Unión de Tula had 11 police officers and one police chief. All of them were ordered to appear in court.[191] Legally, the state government had the power to disarm municipal forces because they have the right to grant and revoke licenses for bearing arms.[192] Governor Sandoval explained that this non-violent procedure took three hours and was done in light of the measures proposed through Operation Jalisco and the attacks of May 1.[u][194] He also explained that the state government conducted a large-scale investigation and discovered that organized crime groups had infiltrated their police ranks.[v][195] Around 150 state officials participated in the disarmament.[196] Jalisco's security commissioner Francisco Alejandro Solorio Aréchiga informed the press that they retrieved 36 rifles (20 from Villa Purificación and 16 from Unión de Tula), 46 handguns (20 from Villa Purificación and 26 from Unión de Tula), and nine vehicles (four from Villa Purificación and five from Unión de Tula).[194] In a communiqué, the state government explained that public security duties would fall under state and federal authorities.[192]

On November 18, 2015, federal authorities arrested Iván Cazarín Molina (alias "El Tanque") in Tlajomulco de Zúñiga for his alleged involvement in the helicopter attack.[w][198] At the building where he was arrested, authorities confiscated four assault rifles, three handguns, a package of cocaine, four vehicles, and radio communication equipment.[199] According to PF chief Enrique Francisco Galindo Ceballos (es), El Tanque was a high-ranking leader of the CJNG and reported directly to El Mencho as the group's second-in-command following the arrest of El Mencho's son Rubén Oseguera González (alias "El Menchito").[200] The PF also suspected that his center of operations was in Guadalajara, where he used money laundering proceeds to further his criminal activities.[201] They believed he was also responsible for drug trafficking, conducting extortions to businesses, leading oil theft rings, and homicides in Jalisco and Veracruz.[199] Prior to his arrest, the PF carried out several covert operations for 6 months and eventually found their way to El Tanque's inner circle, where they discovered that he frequented a location that the CJNG used as one of its centers of operations and recreation spot.[200] The police highlighted that no single shot was fired in the operation, partly due to the fact that El Tanque and his three accomplices were drinking alcohol and were not prepared to defend themselves when the police raided the building.[x][200]

After the May 1 attacks, the Mexican government placed significant attention on El Mencho.[203] In other violent events in the Mexican Drug War, the government had swiftly responded against sensationalist acts of violence. The large efforts often led to the arrests and/or deaths of drug kingpins. Peña Nieto said after the attacks that the CJNG was going to be attacked in similar fashion.[97] CNS chief Rubido García also told reporters that the government was concentrating efforts to capture El Mencho.[204] The reaction from the government was intensive because the attacks were unprecedented in the Mexican Drug War; before the attacks, the government had not seen that degree of aggressive responsiveness from organized crime.[205] According to investigators, the CJNG was able to carry out the attacks because they had territorial knowledge and control, and because they were able to manage resources, logistics, and intelligence information in their favor.[206] In addition, the CJNG was suspected of having well-trained foot soldiers, likely with former police and military training, that were useful in employing paramilitary tactics during the May 1 attacks.[203]

The attention against El Mencho shifted in July 15, 2016, when the suspected Sinaloa Cartel leader Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán, once on Mexico's most-wanted list, escaped from prison a second time. This event embarrassed the Mexican government, which reallocated their resources to apprehend El Chapo. This shift in attention was important for the CJNG because it allowed El Mencho to re-evaluate the group's violent methods against security forces. Over time, ambushes and attacks against law enforcement reduced, and the CJNG began to increase their efforts towards rival criminal groups and incursions into their respective turfs.[207]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The helicopter that was hit was a Cougar EC725; the others at the scene were Bell 412 (1) and a Black Hawk (2).[3]
  2. ^ According to Mexican security forces, the RPGs used by the CJNG were of low cost (MXN$10,000), user friendly, and do not require advance training for proper usage. However, they did state that precision aiming may require advanced shooting skills.[5]
  3. ^ One source said that the helicopter made an announcement to the CJNG convoy to stop, and that the gunmen responded to the warning by shooting at the helicopter.[6]
  4. ^ Another source stated that they used two different rocket launchers, the RPG-2 and RPG-7.[8]
  5. ^ Preliminary reports by the government stated that the helicopter was hit and was forced to conduct an emergency landing.[9] Smog from the attack was visible two days later.[10]
  6. ^ According to local residents, the gunfight between the helicopter units and the CJNG convoy lasted approximately 2 hours.[13]
  7. ^ Guadalajara is 240 kilometres (150 mi) away from Casimiro Castillo–Villa Purificación, where the attack took place.[18] Guadalajara is the capital city of Jalisco and Mexico's second-largest urban area.[19]
  8. ^ The government stated that they did not know if the missing soldiers were hiding, abducted, or injured.[10]
  9. ^ According to anonymous federal sources, the CJNG members who were involved in the helicopter attack were high-ranking mercenaries who were once part of the Mexican Armed Forces. Given their experience in combat and training, they were believed to be assigned as part of the inner circle of Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes (alias "El Mencho"), the suspected CJNG leader who they were reportedly protecting that day.[38]
  10. ^ The official count for the number of roadblocks is 39. Other sources had the figure between 54 and 80.[46][47]
  11. ^ According to the government, 5 gas stations suffered damages, while 14 additional ones had fire but were contained without considerable damages. 11 bank branches and 2 businesses were set on fire.[58] As a result of the attacks, gasoline stations in Jalisco, Colima, and Nayarit cancelled services until authorities restored order.[59][60]
  12. ^ The roadblocks began around 10:00 a.m.; several others were reported as late as 6:00 p.m., though most in the inner cities were cleared by 1:00 p.m.[64]
  13. ^ Other minor accounts stated that the attacks were stemmed by the arrest of a CJNG leader in Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco (most likely in reference to Abigael González Valencia).[105]
  14. ^ Federal sources stated that they believe a high-ranking member of the CJNG was in the convoy that attacked the helicopter. They did not specify if they suspected this individual was El Mencho.[108]
  15. ^ According to government sources, El Mencho has an inner circle made up of former ex-commandos who are responsible for protecting him. His second security circle is made up of approximately 120 people, and this circle's purpose is to carry out ambushes against forces attempting to get close to El Mencho.[110]
  16. ^ Other media outlets stated that El Mencho and his son Rubén Oseguera González (alias "El Menchito") were arrested that day. There were also rumors that stated that they were possibly killed in the attacks.[64] In particular, the rumors of El Mencho's arrest circulated among Jalisco officials.[113] The then-candidate for the governorship of Colima, José Ignacio Peralta Sánchez, gave an official statement online on May 1 claiming El Mencho was arrested. He later removed his claim after the information turned out to be false.[114]
  17. ^ There were other major hashtags, including #GDLUnida, #PazGDL, #PazMéxico,[138] #RecuperemosGDL, #JaliscoEnPaz, and #JaliscoSinMiedo.[139]
  18. ^ The march was also organized to protest the murder of Álvaro Chávez Ochoa,[140] a Guadalajara marathonist who was killed in Zapopan, Jalisco two days prior to the attacks.[141]
  19. ^ Among them were Mexican footballers Javier Hernández, Carlos Salcedo, Marco Fabián, and Aldo de Nigris, racing driver Sergio Pérez,[143] singer Alejandro Fernández, golfer Lorena Ochoa, and actresses Galilea Montijo and Aleida Núñez.[144][137]
  20. ^ Another source confuses the date with May 18, 2015.[154]
  21. ^ In Villa Purificación, civilians notified the state government that armed men from the CJNG were freely roaming around the town, a complaint that may have motivated the disarmament.[193]
  22. ^ Disarmament of municipal police forces is a common practice by security forces in the Mexican Drug War since local authorities are believed to be more susceptible to corruption by criminal groups. In many cases, state and federal authorities do not make the job status of municipal authorities public after their forces have been disarmed.[195]
  23. ^ He was also known as Víctor Hugo Delgado Rentería.[197]
  24. ^ The other detainees were Marco Antonio Rocha García, Rafael Ortega Aquino, and Yahir Martínez Mora.[202]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Fue un encontronazo". El Diario de Coahuila (in Spanish). May 10, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  2. ^ Ferrer, Mauricio (May 1, 2015). "Guerra en Jalisco". Reporte Índigo (in Spanish). p. 2. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  3. ^ Medellín, Jorge Alejandro (May 12, 2016). "El black hawk de la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana". El Noroeste (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  4. ^ "México: hallan muertos a los tres militares desaparecidos en derribo de helicóptero". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-07-22. 
  5. ^ Jiménez, Benito (May 7, 2015). "Dispararon armas baratas, dicen expertos". El Norte (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  6. ^ "Así fue la caída del helicóptero militar en Jalisco". Excélsior (in Spanish). May 6, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-12-28. 
  7. ^ "Disparan contra helicóptero del Ejército en Jalisco". TV Azteca (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-22. 
  8. ^ a b "Usaron narcos lanzacohetes para derribar helicóptero". E-Oaxaca (in Spanish). May 5, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. 
  9. ^ "Mexican army helicopter shot at in drug cartel attack". BBC News. May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-03-27. 
  10. ^ a b Pineda, Leticia (May 3, 2015). "A blast and gunfire: Mexico's chopper". Yahoo! News. AFP. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  11. ^ Becerra-Acosta, Juan Pablo (May 6, 2015). "La caída del helicóptero militar". Milenio (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-07-30. 
  12. ^ a b "Admiten derribo del helicóptero". Reforma (in Spanish). May 6, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  13. ^ "A dos días del incidente, priva hermetismo sobre helicóptero derribado". El Diario de Juárez (in Spanish). May 3, 2015. Archived from the original on January 29, 2016. 
  14. ^ "Así fue la caída del helicóptero atacado por el cártel de Jalisco". CNN Expansión (in Spanish). Turner Broadcasting System. May 5, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-08-25. 
  15. ^ a b "Suman nueve muertos por derribo de helicóptero en Jalisco". Proceso (in Spanish). May 10, 2015. Archived from the original on March 3, 2017. 
  16. ^ Rodríguez Garza, Arturo (May 9, 2015). "El Cártel de Jalisco derribó a militares de élite". Proceso (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  17. ^ a b Becerra-Acosta, Juan Pablo (May 11, 2015). "El 'murciélago' de élite junto al 'Cougar' derribado.." Milenio (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-08-19. 
  18. ^ "Derriba comando helicóptero de la Sedena en Jalisco; mueren tres militares". Ríodoce (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-10-30. 
  19. ^ Castillo, E. Eduardo (May 8, 2015). "New cartel arises from Mexico's assault on big drug lords". The San Diego Union-Tribune. The Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  20. ^ "Derriban helicóptero con militares en #Guadalajara". Zócalo Saltillo (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-26. 
  21. ^ "Derriban helicóptero militaro en Jalisco; mueren tres soldados". Sipse (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-31. 
  22. ^ Quiroz, Carlos (May 11, 2015). "Jalisco: pensaron que eran cohetes; sube a 9 la cifra de muertos por ataque". Excélsior (in Spanish). Archived from the original on January 27, 2016. 
  23. ^ "Suman 9 los muertos tras ataque a helicóptero militar". El Debate de Sinaloa (in Spanish). May 10, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-01. 
  24. ^ "Atacan helicóptero de Sedena en Jalisco, mueren 3 militares". Hora Cero (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  25. ^ "Crimen derriba helicóptero militar en Jalisco; mueren 3, hieren a 12 y 3 más desaparecidos: Sedena". Diario 24 Horas (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-28. 
  26. ^ "Siguen desaparecidos tres militares que tripulan el helicóptero derribado en Jalisco". Revista Emeequis (in Spanish). May 3, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  27. ^ "Amplían búsqueda de los tres militares desaparecidos tras ataque a helicóptero". La Jornada (in Spanish). May 2, 2015. Archived from the original on July 6, 2015. 
  28. ^ Martínez, Cesar (May 3, 2015). "Sigue búsqueda de militares en Jalisco". El Norte (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  29. ^ "Hallan muertos a los tres soldados desaparecidos en Jalisco". La Jornada (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on July 7, 2015. 
  30. ^ "Los 3 militares desaparecidos murieron: Rubido". Agencia Quadratín (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  31. ^ "Hallan a 3 militares desaparecidos tras caída de helicóptero". El Diario de Juárez (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-29. 
  32. ^ Vicenteño, David (May 7, 2015). "Suman siete militares fallecidos por ataque a helicóptero en Jalisco". Excélsior (in Spanish). Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. 
  33. ^ "Suman 8 muertos por ataque a helicóptero militar en Jalisco". El Horizonte (in Spanish). May 7, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-10-30. 
  34. ^ "Suman 9 muertos por caída de helicóptero". El Norte (in Spanish). May 10, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-10-30. 
  35. ^ Rodríguez, David (May 1, 2015). "Derriban helicóptero de Sedena en Jalisco: 3 muertos y 12 lesionados". Quadratín (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2017-10-30. 
  36. ^ Muédano, Marcos (May 1, 2015). "Atacan helicóptero de Sedena en Jalisco; 3 militares muertos". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-11-20. 
  37. ^ Quiroz, Carlos; Luna, Adriana (May 2, 2015). "Tirotean helicóptero militar; 3 muertos; azota violencia a cuatro estados". Excélsior (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2017-09-25. 
  38. ^ Veledíaz, Juan (May 11, 2015). "La nueva ola de mercenarios". Estado Mayor (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-05-08. 
  39. ^ G. Partida, Juan Carlos (May 2, 2015). "Narcoataque". La Jornada (in Spanish). p. 2. Archived from the original on 2016-09-11. 
  40. ^ Garduño, Javier (May 6, 2015). "Muere séptimo militar por ataque a helicóptero en Jalisco". Diario 24 Horas (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-01-28. 
  41. ^ "Confirma Sedena muerte de 6 militares en el ataque a helicóptero en Jalisco". La Jornada (in Spanish). May 5, 2015. Archived from the original on July 9, 2015. 
  42. ^ Alzaga, Ignacio (May 5, 2015). "Decomisaron 4 lanzacohetes tras ataques en Jalisco". Milenio (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-08-02. 
  43. ^ Archibold, Randal C. (May 1, 2015). "Mexican Helicopter Shot Down, Killing 3 Soldiers". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2015-10-01. 
  44. ^ "Jalisco en "código rojo" por quema de vehículos y ataques". CNN Expansión (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-08-10. 
  45. ^ Gómez, María Idalia (May 1, 2015). "'El Mencho' desata caos en Bajío y Guanajuato". Eje Central (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2017-10-30. 
  46. ^ García Soto, Salvador (May 7, 2015). "¿Por que falló la captura de El Mencho?". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. 
  47. ^ Herrera, Luis (May 1, 2016). "Un día terror". Reporte Índigo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017. 
  48. ^ "Fallida Operación Jalisco de EPN: 39 bloqueos en 25 municipios". Zeta (in Spanish). May 2, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-10-30. 
  49. ^ "Arde Jalisco: 39 bloqueos en 25 municipios; 4 enfrentamientos, 7 muertos y 15 heridos". Aristegui Noticias (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-04-03. 
  50. ^ "México: derriban helicóptero militar en día de incendios y bloqueos en Jalisco". CNN Español (in Spanish). Turner Broadcasting System. May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-11-12. 
  51. ^ Calderón, Verónica (May 2, 2015). "Una ofensiva del narco en México derriba un helicóptero militar". El País (in Spanish). Archived from the original on September 10, 2017. 
  52. ^ "Mexican military helicopter shot down by gunmen, killing three soldiers". The Guardian. May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-02-08. 
  53. ^ Leveille, David (May 8, 2015). "A heavily armed 'paramilitary' cartel unleashes violence in Mexico's second-biggest city". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on 2015-10-26. 
  54. ^ Tucker, Duncan (May 2, 2015). "Seven killed and a military helicopter shot down amid wave of violence in Mexico". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2017-10-16. 
  55. ^ "Balaceras, bloqueos y derribo de helicóptero en Jalisco: 20 municipios afectados". La Jornada (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-05-03. 
  56. ^ Ángel, Arturo (May 4, 2015). "5 claves para entender la jornada violenta del 1 de mayo en Jalisco". AnimalPolítico (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-04-21. 
  57. ^ "Bloquean con vehículos quemados entradas a Guadalajara". Milenio (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-01-04. 
  58. ^ a b González Rodríguez, Daniel (May 3, 2015). "Proposición con punto de acuerdo sobre la quema de vehículos y bloqueos en diversas zonas del estado de Jalisco" (PDF) (in Spanish). Chamber of Deputies. pp. 1–2. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  59. ^ Castro, Míriam (May 1, 2015). "Paran gasolineras de Jalisco, Nayarit, y Colima por bloqueos". Milenio (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-09-27. 
  60. ^ Rodríguez, Israel (May 1, 2015). "Recomiendan a gasolineras de Jalisco tomar medidas ante violencia". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. 
  61. ^ Osorio, Alberto; Reza, Gloria; Cobián, Felipe (May 1, 2015). "Caos en Guadalajara: muertos, incendio de vehículos, gasolinerías, bancos…". Proceso (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2017-10-30. 
  62. ^ "7 dead in violence in western Mexican state of Jalisco". EFE. May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  63. ^ "39 bloqueos en Jalisco, Guanajuato, Colima y Michoacán tras operativo federal". AnimalPolítico (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-06-29. 
  64. ^ a b Cobián, Felipe; Covarrubias, Jorge; Osorio M., Alberto; Meza, Gloria (May 2, 2015). "La costosa Operación Jalisco". Proceso (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  65. ^ Serrano Íñiguez, Sonia (May 1, 2015). "En total fueron 39 bloqueos y 19 detenidos en Jalisco". Milenio (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-08-08. 
  66. ^ G. Partida, Juan Carlos (May 1, 2015). "La violencia en Jalisco alcanzó a 19 municipios; saldo preliminar: 7 muertos". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. 
  67. ^ "Suman 25 bloqueos en Jalisco con vehículos incendiados". TV Azteca (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-22. 
  68. ^ Zúñiga, Andrés (May 1, 2015). "39 narcobloqueos dejaron 7 muertos y 19 heridos". Un1ón Jalisco (in Spanish). El Universal. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  69. ^ "Criminales someten a Jalisco y obligan a las autoridades a activar el 'Código Rojo'". Univision (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-09-21. 
  70. ^ a b "Jalisco mantiene Código Rojo; saldan siete muertos, 19 heridos y 19 detenidos". Diario 24 Horas (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016. 
  71. ^ "Se mantiene Código Rojo en Jalisco". La Razón (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  72. ^ Rojas, Nicole (May 1, 2015). "Mexico: Cartel gunmen shoot down army helicopter, killing three troops". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 2015-12-20. 
  73. ^ "Jalisco retira el "código rojo" tras hechos violentos". CNN México (in Spanish). Turner Broadcasting System. May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-03-12. 
  74. ^ "Jalisco: autoridades levantan el Código Rojo e inician fase de 'vigilancia preventiva'". Aristegui Noticias (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-24. 
  75. ^ "Death toll from attack on Mexico military chopper rises to 8". EFE. May 8, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  76. ^ "Mexico charges three with 'terrorism' after cartel violence". Yahoo! News. AFP. May 7, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  77. ^ a b Castillo, Gustavo; Santos, Javier; García, Carlos (May 1, 2015). "Balaceras y bloqueos en Jalisco; confirman cuatro muertos". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. 
  78. ^ "La violencia del narco sacude el estado de Jalisco y deja al menos 7 muertos". EFE (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  79. ^ a b "Alerta Consulado de EU tras bloqueos en Jalisco". La Crónica (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  80. ^ Estevez, Dolia (May 4, 2015). "Narcoviolence In Jalisco, Home To Largest Group Of Americans In Mexico, A "Serious Concern"". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2016-11-11. 
  81. ^ a b May 1, 2015. "Lanza EU alerta por violencia en Jalisco". El Norte (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  82. ^ a b "Alerta Consulado de EU sobre violencia en Jalisco". La Jornada (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-05-05. 
  83. ^ "EU alerta por bloqueos en Guadalajara". Excélsior (in Spanish). May 2, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-26. 
  84. ^ Hastings, Deborah (May 5, 2015). "Mexican military declares all-out war against cartel that shot down Army helicopter and killed 6 soldiers in smoldering Jalisco state". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 2016-06-12. 
  85. ^ Robins-Early, Nick (May 8, 2015). "A Rising Drug Cartel Just Shot Down One Of Mexico's Military Helicopters". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 2016-01-30. 
  86. ^ a b c d "Violence in Mexico: May Day mayhem". The Economist. May 9, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-11-29. 
  87. ^ Ángel, Arturo (May 5, 2015). "El lanzacohetes que derribó aeronave en Jalisco, un 'caza helicópteros' usado por 70 Ejércitos". AnimalPolítico (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2017-03-16. 
  88. ^ (subscription required) de Córdoba, José (May 4, 2015). "Mexican Army Helicopter Was Shot Down With Rocket-Propelled Grenades". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2017-07-24. 
  89. ^ "Death toll in Mexico drug cartel's attack on chopper rises to 8". The Tico Times. May 7, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-09-25. 
  90. ^ Ramírez, Carlos (May 4, 2015). "Jalisco: código rojo, código pánico social". Diario 24 Horas (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-01-28. 
  91. ^ a b "Seven killed in Mexico after gunmen down helicopter in series of attacks". The Guardian. May 2, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-11-30. 
  92. ^ "Helicóptero en Jalisco fue derribado con un lanzacohete ruso RPG". El Financiero (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-07-31. 
  93. ^ Partlow, Joshua (May 1, 2015). "Military helicopter shot down as drug violence surges in western Mexico". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  94. ^ Wilkinson, Tracy (May 6, 2015). "Mexico drug violence intensifies as elections approach". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2017-09-26. 
  95. ^ Osorio, Jose Luis (May 1, 2015). "Gunmen open fire on Mexico Army chopper as violence roils major state". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  96. ^ Gagne, David (May 13, 2015). "Is the Jalisco Cartel Really Mexico's Most Powerful?". InSight Crime. Archived from the original on 2017-09-25. 
  97. ^ a b Gagne, David (May 4, 2015). "Challenging the State a Poor Strategy for Mexico's Jalisco Cartel". InSight Crime. Archived from the original on 2017-09-25. 
  98. ^ "Helicóptero de la Sedena fue derribado con lanzacohetes en Jalisco; fueron 15 muertos confirma Rubido". Aristegui Noticias (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-24. 
  99. ^ Verza, Maria (May 2, 2015). "Mexican drug cartel Jalisco New Generation flexes muscles". The San Diego Union-Tribune. The Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  100. ^ Castillo, Gustavo (May 1, 2015). "Inicia 'Operación Jalisco' ante situación de inseguridad". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. 
  101. ^ "Autoridades Federales implementan 'Operación Jalisco'". El Economista (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on March 18, 2017. 
  102. ^ Torres, Raúl; Gómora, Doris (May 6, 2015). "Experto antinarco encabeza ofensiva". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2017-09-25. 
  103. ^ Lohmuller, Michael (May 6, 2015). "'Operation Jalisco' in Mexico: New General, Same Police". InSight Crime. Archived from the original on 2015-05-22. 
  104. ^ Monroy, Jorge (May 10, 2015). "Jalisco, acorazado con tanquetas y 10 mil soldados". El Economista (in Spanish). Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. 
  105. ^ "Vehículos incendiados y bloqueos en Jalisco". Ríodoce (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  106. ^ Ramírez Cuevas, Jade; Franco, Darwin (May 3, 2016). "El día que se escapó El Mencho… y los militares se desquitaron con los jaliscienses". Lado B (in Spanish). AnimalPolítico. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  107. ^ "El narco demuestra su poderío: derriba un helicóptero, 39 bloqueos, 7 muertos…". Proceso (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-10-16. 
  108. ^ "Aumentó la cifra de muertos por derribo de helicóptero por criminales en Jalisco, México". Univision (in Spanish). May 7, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-09-15. 
  109. ^ "Tras caída de helicóptero escapó 'El Mencho', por quinta vez" (in Spanish). El Diario de Juárez. May 8, 2015. Archived from the original on March 18, 2017. 
  110. ^ a b Riva Palacios, Raymundo (May 8, 2015). "La derrota militar en Jalisco". El Financiero (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-08-01. 
  111. ^ "Captura del Mencho, origen de enfrentamientos en Jalisco". Quadratín (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-05-06. 
  112. ^ Barajas, Abel (July 28, 2015). "Aprietan a CJNG". El Norte (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  113. ^ Ferrer, Mauricio (May 4, 2015). "La Operación Jalisco". Reporte Índigo (in Spanish). p. 2. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  114. ^ Gómez Leyva, Ciro (May 4, 2015). "Ignacio Peralta da por hecho detención 'El Mencho'". Radio Fórmula (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 9, 2017. 
  115. ^ "Falla 'Operación Jalisco': escapa líder del cártel Nueva Generación y desquician el estado". Aristegui Noticias (in Spanish). May 2, 2015. Archived from the original on January 23, 2016. 
  116. ^ "El Mencho, el hombre que desató la furia en Jalisco". El Debate de Sinaloa (in Spanish). May 7, 2015. Archived from the original on July 15, 2015. 
  117. ^ "Derriban helicóptero de Sedena en Jalisco; mueren 3 militares". El Diario de Juárez (in Spanish). May 2, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-12-14. 
  118. ^ Vargas, Rosa Elvira (May 1, 2015). "Lamenta Peña Nieto fallecimiento de elementos del Ejército". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-12-17. 
  119. ^ "Comando derriba helicóptero militar en Jalisco; tres muertos". Milenio (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-08-30. 
  120. ^ "Suben a siete los militares fallecidos en ataque a helicóptero en Jalisco". La Jornada (in Spanish). May 6, 2015. Archived from the original on May 7, 2015. 
  121. ^ Vargas, Rosa Elvira (May 6, 2015). "Peña Nieto se reúne con familiares de militares muertos en Jalisco". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-05-07. 
  122. ^ "Rinde Peña Nieto homenaje a militares fallecidos en Jalisco". El Diario de Juárez. Reforma. May 5, 2015. Archived from the original on November 2, 2017. 
  123. ^ Vargas, Rosa Elvira (May 6, 2015). "Rinden homenaje a soldados muertos en derribo de helicóptero en Jalisco". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-12-18. 
  124. ^ Hernández, Érika (May 7, 2015). "Fue vandalismo ataques en GDL: Sandoval". El Mural (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  125. ^ a b Reséndiz, Francisco (May 8, 2015). "Fue vandalismo: Aristóteles Sandoval". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-08-09. 
  126. ^ Vargas, Rosa Elvira; González, Susana (May 7, 2015). "'Actos vandálicos', no terrorismo en Jalisco, dice Sandoval". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  127. ^ "'Actos vandálicos', la jornada violenta del 1 de mayo en Jalisco: Aristóteles Sandoval". AnimalPolítico (in Spanish). May 7, 2015. Archived from the original on October 17, 2017. 
  128. ^ a b c Tucker, Duncan; Ornelas, Victor Hugo (May 14, 2015). "Surviving the Narco-Blockades of Mexico's Jalisco State". VICE. Archived from the original on 2017-04-06. 
  129. ^ Galván, Javier (June 19, 2015). "Asesinan a delegado del ISSSTE en Jalisco". Reporte Índigo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  130. ^ a b c Osorio, Alberto (May 16, 2015). "'Tienen este mes para largarse'". Proceso (in Spanish). Archived from the original on October 16, 2017. 
  131. ^ "Informe al Senado de la República del ascenso post mórtem otorgado a 5 oficiales y 4 de tropa extintos" (PDF) (in Spanish). Chamber of Deputies. June 8, 2015. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-11-08. 
  132. ^ "Otorgan ascenso post mortem a militares caídos en Jalisco". El Diario de Juárez (in Spanish). June 10, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-25. 
  133. ^ Arvizu Arrioja, Juan; Jiménez, Horacio (June 8, 2015). "Sedena da ascenso post mórtem a 8 militares". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-08-11. 
  134. ^ "Otorgan ascenso post mortem a militares que perdieron la vida en Jalisco" (in Spanish). Senate of the Republic. June 10, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  135. ^ "La Sedena da ascenso 'post mortem' a 8 militares fallecidos en Jalisco". CNNMéxico (in Spanish). Grupo Expansión. June 10, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-11-08. 
  136. ^ Baranda, Antonio; Hernández, Érika (December 23, 2015). "Una ovación para el 'héroe'". Reforma (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  137. ^ a b c d Zapata, Belén (May 10, 2015). "Marchan en silencia para exigir seguridad tras jornada violenta del 1 de mayo en Jalisco". AnimalPolítico (in Spanish). Archived from the original on July 4, 2016. 
  138. ^ a b Coronado Mendoza, Mariana (May 7, 2015). "Ciudadanos marcharán por Guadalajara". Milenio (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-08-25. 
  139. ^ César, Alejandra (May 1, 2015). "#RecuperemosGDL, responden tapatíos a criminales". El Financiero (in Spanish). Archived from the original on July 30, 2015. 
  140. ^ "Así fue la #CaminataPorLaPazGDL tras hechos violentos del 1 de mayo". AnimalPolítico (in Spanish). May 9, 2015. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016. 
  141. ^ "Muere baleado en Providencia". Mural (in Spanish). Reforma. April 30, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  142. ^ Pedroza, Alejandra (May 5, 2015). "Marcharán en respuesta a narcoataque". Reforma (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  143. ^ "'Chicharito' y otras personalidades hacen llamado por la paz en Jalisco". CNN en Español (in Spanish). Turner Broadcasting System. May 2, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  144. ^ "'Viste de blanco', tapatíos llaman a Caminata Por la Paz en Guadalajara". Diario 24 Horas (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. 
  145. ^ "Guadalajara 'camina' por la paz en silencio y en familia". CNN México (in Spanish). Turner Broadcasting System. May 9, 2015. Archived from the original on August 10, 2015. 
  146. ^ Alvarado, Alejandro (May 9, 2015). "Caminan por la paz en Guadalajara". El Norte (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  147. ^ "#CaminataPorLaPazGDL, en silencio y con flores". El Informador (in Spanish). May 9, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  148. ^ Borbolla, Diego (May 14, 2015). "Convocan a marcha por la paz pro Jalisco en el DF". TV Azteca (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-10-23. 
  149. ^ García, Denise A. (May 12, 2015). "Confirman presencia en DF de Cártel Jalisco". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  150. ^ "Convocan a la 'Marcha Silenciosa por la Paz en Jalisco y México'". Excélsior (in Spanish). May 31, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-02. 
  151. ^ René, Pierre-Marc (May 25, 2015). "Organizaciones civiles convocan marcha por la paz". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  152. ^ Galván, David (May 15, 2015). "Convocan a marcha por elementos federales caídos". WRadio (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  153. ^ "Con saldo blanco, concluye Marcha por la paz en el DF (+fotos)". Diario 24 Horas (in Spanish). May 31, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-30. 
  154. ^ Gagne, David (May 20, 2015). "Shootout in Mexico's Embattled Jalisco State Leaves 8 Dead". InSight Crime. Archived from the original on 2017-09-25. 
  155. ^ a b c Ferrer, Mauricio (May 20, 2015). "Los desaparecidos de Villa Purificación". Reporte Índigo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  156. ^ "Enfrentamiento en Jalisco deja 8 muertos". El Debate de Sinaloa (in Spanish). May 19, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-06-21. 
  157. ^ Franco Migues, Darwin (November 6, 2015). "Región Costa Sur: desaparecer en territorio del crimen organizado" (in Spanish). Proyecto Diez. Archived from the original on 2015-11-08. 
  158. ^ "Confirman que cadáveres de Villa Purificación fueron traídos a Guadalajara". La Crónica de Hoy (in Spanish). May 19, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  159. ^ G. Partida, Juan Carlos (May 27, 2015). "Aún esperan respuesta familiares de desaparecidos en Jalisco". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-07-30. 
  160. ^ Hernández, René; González Jáuregui, David (May 19, 2015). "Piden ayuda para encontrar a familiares desaparecidos". La Crónica de Hoy (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  161. ^ Cobián, Felipe (May 19, 2015). "Familiares de desaparecidos reportan 40 muertos tras operativo contra 'El Mencho'". Proceso (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  162. ^ a b "Reportan 5 desaparecidos tras enfrentamientos del 1 de mayo en Jalisco". Aristegui Noticias (in Spanish). May 21, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  163. ^ a b G. Partida, Juan Carlos (May 21, 2015). "PGR remite a la Seido a familiares de 5 desaparecidos en Villa Purificación". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-07-29. 
  164. ^ G. Partida, Juan Carlos (May 20, 2015). "Retuvieron militares 8 cuerpos de caídos en ataque del día primero". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-06-30. 
  165. ^ Franco, Darwin (June 3, 2015). "Mayo: La Operación Jalisco" (in Spanish). Nuestra Aparente Rendición. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  166. ^ "Familiares buscan a desaparecidos en Villa Purificación". El Informador (in Spanish). May 20, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-07-27. 
  167. ^ Torres, Raúl (May 20, 2015). "Denuncian desaparición de personas en Jalisco". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  168. ^ a b Torres, Raúl (May 21, 2015). "Familias de desaparecidos en Jalisco buscan amparo". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-08-10. 
  169. ^ "La CNDH recibe quejas por desaparecidos en Villa Purificación". El Informador (in Spanish). May 24, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  170. ^ "Identifican a tres civiles abatidos en Jalisco por militares". El Informador (in Spanish). May 19, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-07-25. 
  171. ^ Torres, Raúl (May 19, 2015). "Identifican a 3 civiles abatidos el 1 de mayo en Jalisco". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-08-10. 
  172. ^ "¿Cuál es la identidad de las víctimas de Villa Purificación?" (in Spanish). Proyecto Diez. May 21, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  173. ^ "Entre carencias y nula respuesta". Mural (in Spanish). Reforma. May 22, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  174. ^ "Sube en Jalisco la narcoviolencia". Reforma (in Spanish). May 6, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  175. ^ "Aumentan homicidios dolosos en Jalisco en 2016". El Informador (in Spanish). January 22, 2017. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  176. ^ G. Partida, Juan Carlos (January 3, 2017). "Récord de homicidios en Jalisco". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2017-01-06. 
  177. ^ "Tres militares muertos y 19 detenidos; saldo del Operativo Jalisco". Agencia Quadratín (in Spanish). May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  178. ^ Castillo, Gustavo (May 6, 2015). "PGR investiga a 11 de los 19 detenidos en Jalisco". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. 
  179. ^ "Remiten a 10 por terrorismo y crimen organizado en Jalisco". El Universal (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-08-09. 
  180. ^ "Consignan a 10 personas por narcobloqueos en Jalisco". TV Azteca (in Spanish). Notimex. May 5, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-22. 
  181. ^ "Remiten a PGR a 10 por ataque en Jalisco". El Norte (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  182. ^ "Hay 11 detenidos por los hechos violentos del 1 de mayo en Jalisco: Fiscalía". AnimalPolítico (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on October 29, 2017. 
  183. ^ "Detienen a 11 por ataques en Jalisco; uno es menor de edad". El Diario de Juárez (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-29. 
  184. ^ "Identifican a autores de narcobloqueos en Jalisco". El Diario de Juárez (in Spanish). Reforma. May 2, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-29. 
  185. ^ "Remiten a la PGR a 10 por hechos violentos en Jalisco". El Informador (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on July 23, 2015. 
  186. ^ Dávila, Patricia (May 6, 2015). "Consigna la PGR a cinco personas por narcoviolencia en Jalisco". Proceso (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  187. ^ "Liberan a 3 ligados a ataques en Jalisco". El Norte (in Spanish). May 7, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  188. ^ "Cae un implicado en bloqueos de Jalisco el 1 de mayo". Excélsior (in Spanish). July 29, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-01-09. 
  189. ^ Hernández, René (July 24, 2015). "Consignan a presunto participante de bloqueos del 1 de mayo". La Crónica de Hoy (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  190. ^ Cobián R., Felipe (May 15, 2015). "Desarman a policías de zona jalisciense donde fue derribado helicóptero oficial". Proceso (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  191. ^ Garduño, Javier (May 15, 2015). "Detienen a 30 policías de Villa Purificación y Unión de Tula, Jalisco tras desarme". Diario 24 Horas (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-01-29. 
  192. ^ a b "Desarman a policías de Villa Purificación y Unión de Tula, Jalisco". El Financiero (in Spanish). May 15, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-08-03. 
  193. ^ Hernández, René; Reynoso, Alma (May 16, 2015). "Desarman a policías de Villa Purificación y Unión de Tula". La Crónica de Hoy (in Spanish). Archived from the original on May 17, 2015. 
  194. ^ a b G. Partida, Juan Carlos (May 16, 2015). "Desarman a policías de Unión de Tula y Villa Purificación en Jalisco". La Jornada (in Spanish). Archived from the original on May 20, 2015. 
  195. ^ a b "Desarman en Jalisco a policías en la zona de ataque a militares". El Horizonte (in Spanish). May 16, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  196. ^ Puértolas, Miguel Ángel (May 16, 2015). "Desarman a agentes de 2 municipios de Jalisco". Milenio (in Spanish). Archived from the original on October 29, 2017. 
  197. ^ Tucker, Duncan (November 19, 2015). "Ivan Cazarin Molina: Mexican drug cartel commander arrested while playing football drunk in street outside his Guadalajara safe house". The Independent. Archived from the original on December 26, 2015. 
  198. ^ Osorio, Alberto; Reza, Gloria (November 24, 2015). "Iván Cazarín, un pez gordo… y escurridizo". Proceso (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  199. ^ a b Muedano, Marcos (November 18, 2015). "Cae Iván Cazarín, segundo al mando del Cártel Jalisco". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-11-20. 
  200. ^ a b c Vicenteño, David (November 19, 2015). "Cae Iván Casarín Molina, señalado como segundo al mando de CJNG". Excélsior (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-01-24. 
  201. ^ Daugherty, Arron (November 19, 2015). "Mexico Captures Jalisco Cartel Leader's 'Right Hand Man'". InSight Crime. Archived from the original on 2017-09-26. 
  202. ^ Campillo, Marco (November 19, 2015). "Cae El Tanque, segundo al mando del Cártel Jalisco". La Crónica de Hoy (in Spanish). Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. 
  203. ^ a b Guerrero Gutiérrez, Eduardo (June 1, 2015). "El nuevo enemigo público". Revista Nexos (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-04-17. 
  204. ^ "Habrá 'significativa fuerza' en búsqueda del 'Mencho', dice Rubido". El Informador (in Spanish). May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. 
  205. ^ Luna, Adriana (May 2, 2016). "Empeora Jalisco a un año de 'helicopterazo'; crecen homicidios y robo de autos". Excélsior (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-08-08. 
  206. ^ Velediaz, Juan (May 3, 2015). "'Mencho' lanza un reto al gobierno". Estado Mayor (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-08-09. 
  207. ^ Eells, Josh (July 11, 2017). "The Brutal Rise of El Mencho". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on July 13, 2017. 

External links[edit]