List of dialects of English
The following is a list of dialects of English. Dialects are linguistic varieties which may differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling and grammar. For the classification of varieties of English in terms of pronunciation only, see Regional accents of English.
Dialects can be defined as "sub-forms of languages which are, in general, mutually comprehensible." English speakers from different countries and regions use a variety of different accents (systems of pronunciation), as well as various localized words and grammatical constructions; many different dialects can be identified based on these factors. Dialects can be classified at broader or narrower levels: within a broad national or regional dialect, various more localized sub-dialects can be identified, and so on. The combination of differences in pronunciation and use of local words may make some English dialects almost unintelligible to speakers from other regions.
The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into three general categories: the British Isles dialects, those of North America, and those of Australasia. Dialects can be associated not only with place, but also with particular social groups. Within a given English-speaking country, there will often be a form of the language considered to be Standard English – the Standard Englishes of different countries differ, and each can itself be considered a dialect. Standard English is often associated with the more educated layers of society, as well as more formal registers.
British and American English are the reference norms for English as spoken, written, and taught in the rest of the world, excluding countries where English is spoken natively such as Australia, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand. In many former British Empire countries where English is not spoken natively, British English forms are closely followed, alongside numerous AmE usages which have become widespread throughout the English-speaking world. Conversely, in many countries historically influenced by the United States where English is not spoken natively, American English forms are closely followed. Many of these countries, while retaining strong BrE or AmE influences, have developed their own unique dialects, which include Indian English and Philippine English.
Chief among other native English dialects are Canadian English and Australian English, which rank third and fourth in the number of native speakers. For the most part, Canadian English, while featuring numerous British forms alongside indigenous Canadianisms, shares vocabulary, phonology and syntax with American English, leading many to recognize North American English as an organic grouping of dialects. Australian English likewise shares many American and British English usages alongside plentiful features unique to Australia, and retains a significantly higher degree of distinctiveness from both the larger varieties than does Canadian English. South African English, New Zealand English and the Hiberno-English of Ireland are also distinctive and rank fifth, sixth and seventh in the number of native speakers.
- 1 List
- 1.1 Europe
- 1.2 North America
- 1.3 Caribbean, Central, and South America
- 1.4 Asia
- 1.5 Africa
- 1.6 Oceania
- 2 Creoles
- 3 Constructed
- 4 Manual encodings
- 5 Code-switching
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2011)
- Received Pronunciation (sometimes called "the Queen's English" or Standard British English)
- Northern (In the North East, local speech is akin to Scots)
- Cumbrian (Cumbria including Barrovian in Barrow-in-Furness)
- Geordie (Tyneside)
- Hartlepudlian (Hartlepool)
- Lancastrian (Lancashire)
- Mackem (Sunderland)
- Mancunian (Greater Manchester)
- Northumbrian (Northumberland and northern County Durham)
- Pitmatic (former mining communities of Northumberland and County Durham)
- Scouse (Merseyside)
- Smoggie (Teesside)
- East Midlands
- West Midlands
- East Anglian
- West Country
- Scottish English comprising varieties based on the Standard English of England.
- Scots is either considered one of the ancient varieties of English with its own distinct dialects or a distinct Germanic language separate from (Scottish) English.
Isle of Man
- Hiberno-English (Irish English)
- Forth and Bargy dialect (also known as Yola), thought to have been a descendant of Middle English, spoken in County Wexford
- Fingallian, another presumed descendant of Middle English, spoken in Fingal
- Cultural and ethnic American English
- General American English
- General American: the "standard" or "mainstream" spectrum of American English.
- Regional and local American English
- Appalachian English
- New England English
- Eastern New England
- Southeast super-region
- Mid-Atlantic (Delaware Valley)
- North Midland: Omaha, Lincoln, Columbia, Springfield, Muncie, Columbus, etc.
- South Midland: Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Topeka, Wichita, Kansas City, St. Louis (in transition), Decatur, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Dayton, etc.
- "Hoi Toider"
- New Orleans
- New York City
- North Central (Upper Midwestern): Brockway, Minot, Bismarck, Bemidji, Chisholm, Duluth, Marquette, etc.
- Western Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh)
- Extinct or near-extinct American English
- Atlantic Canadian English
- Standard Canadian English
Caribbean, Central, and South America
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
- Bangladeshi English (Benglish or Banglish)
- Standard Indian English
- Indian English: the "standard" English used by administration and educated people.
- Regional and local Indian English
- Sri Lankan English (SLE)
- South African English (similar to Australian English and British English)
- Black South African English
- Cape Flats English
- Indian South African English
- White South African English
- Broad accent
- General accent
- Cultivated accent
- Black South African English
Australian English (AusE, AusEng):
New Zealand English (NZE, en-NZ)
Pidgins and creoles exist which are based on, or incorporate, English, including Chinook Jargon (a mostly extinct trade language), American Indian Pidgin English, and Manglish (Malaysian English-Malay-Chinese-Tamil).
A pan-Asian English variation called Globalese has been described.
Several constructed languages exist based on English, which have never been adopted as a vernacular. Language scholars have stated that constructed languages are "no longer of practical use" with English as a de facto global language.
- Basic English
- European English
- Globish (Gogate)
- Globish (Nerriere)
- Special English
- Simplified English
These encoding systems should not be confused with sign languages such as British Sign Language and American Sign Language, which, while they are informed by English, have their own grammar and vocabulary.
The following are portmanteaus devised to describe certain local varieties of English and other linguistic phenomena involving English. Although similarly named, they are actually quite different in nature, with some being genuine mixed languages, some being instances of heavy code-switching between English and another language, some being genuine local dialects of English used by first-language English speakers, and some being non-native pronunciations of English. A few portmanteaus (such as Greeklish and Fingilish) are transliteration methods rather than any kind of spoken variant of English.
- Anglish (English stressing words of Germanic origin)
- Arabish (Arabic English, mostly chat romanization)
- Army creole (military dialect of acronyms and profanity)
- Benglish (Bengali English)
- Bislish (Bisaya English)
- Béarlachas (English incorporated into Irish)
- Chinglish (Chinese English)
- Czenglish (Czech English)
- Danglish (Danish English)
- Dunglish (Dutch English)
- Engrish (Japanese English) - most popularly refers to broken English used by Japanese in attempts at foreign branding.
- Finglish (Finnish English)
- Franglais (French English)
- Denglisch/Pseudo-Anglicism (German English)
- Greeklish (Greek English)
- Heblish (Hebrew English)
- Hinglish (Hindi English)
- Konglish (South Korean English)
- Manglish (Malaysian English)
- Maltenglish (Maltese English)
- Poglish (Polish English)
- Porglish (Portuguese English)
- Runglish (Russian English)
- Sheng (a Swahili-English cant; originated among urban youths Nairobi, Kenya)
- Siculish (Sicilian English)
- Singlish (Singapore English, multiple pidgins)
- Spanglish (Spanish English)
- Swenglish (Swedish English)
- Taglish (Tagalog English)
- Tanglish (Tamil and English)
- Tenglish (Telugu and English)
- Tinglish/Thailish (Thai English)
- Urdish (Urdu and English)
- Vinish (Vietnamese English)
- Wenglish (Welsh English)
- Yeshivish (Yeshiva English)
- Yinglish (Yiddish English)
- Survey of English Dialects
- Regional accents of English
- History of the English language
- Macaronic language
- English language in Europe
- English-based creole languages
- List of English-based pidgins
- World Englishes
- Wakelin, Martyn Francis (2008). Discovering English Dialects. Oxford: Shire Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7478-0176-4.
- Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press, 2003
- Trudgill and Hannah, 2002
- JC Wells, Accents of English, Cambridge University Press, 1983, page 351
- A.J. Aitken in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press 1992. p.894
- Hickey, Raymond (2005). Dublin English: Evolution and Change. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 196–198. ISBN 90-272-4895-8.
- Hickey, Raymond (2002). A Source Book for Irish English (PDF). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 28–29. ISBN 90-272-3753-0.
ISBN 1-58811-209-8 (US)
- Daniel Schreier, Peter Trudgill. The Lesser-Known Varieties of English: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Mar 4, 2010 pg. 10
- Nunan 2012, p. 186.
- Fischer 2004, p. 181 "[T]he goal [of constructed languages] is no longer of practical use... Living languages are of far greater influence in the world ... world languages are emerging naturally for the first time in history. Indeed, the English language -- by historical circumstance, not by design -- presently counts more second-language speakers than any other tongue on Earth and numbers are growing."
- Hickey, Raymond (ed.) (2004). Legacies of Colonial English. Studies in Transported Dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521175074.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Hickey, Raymond (ed.) (2010). Varieties of English in Writing. The Written Word as Linguistic Evidence. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. ISBN 9789027249012.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Hickey, Raymond (2014). A Dictionary of Varieties of English. Malden, MA: Wiley- Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-470-65641-9.
- "English Language§Varieties of English", Encyclopædia Britannica (Fifth ed.), Vol. 6 Earth–Everglades, pp. 883–886, 1974
- Bolton, K. (2002), Hong Kong English: Autonomy and Creativity, Asian Englishes Today, Hong Kong University Press, ISBN 978-962-209-553-3, retrieved 2015-10-22
- Crystal, David (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (Second ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-521-53033-4. Retrieved 2006-07-20.
- Fischer, Steven Roger (2004), History of Language, Reaktion Books, ISBN 978-1-86189-594-3
- Okrent, A. (2010), In the Land of Invented Languages: A Celebration of Linguistic Creativity, Madness, and Genius, Spiegel & Grau Trade Paperbacks, ISBN 978-0-8129-8089-9
- Nunan, David (2012), What Is This Thing Called Language?, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-1-137-28499-0
- Sounds Familiar? Listen to examples of regional accents and dialects from across the UK on the British Library's 'Sounds Familiar?' website
- A national map of the regional dialects of American English
- IDEA – International Dialects of English Archive
- English Dialects – English Dialects around the world
- Dialect poetry from the English regions
- American Languages: Our Nation's Many Voices - An online audio resource presenting interviews with speakers of German-American and American English dialects from across the United States