|Native to||South Korea|
Jeju (also called Cheju or Jejueo) is a Koreanic language spoken at Jeju Island which forms the Jeju Province of South Korea. It differs greatly from the Korean dialects of the mainland. Standard Korean is the most common form of communication in Korea, whereas the Jeju dialect is considered a very local language. The Jeju language is mainly understood and spoken by the older generation. As of October 2014, the Jeju National University Foreign Language Institute has made efforts to save the fading language. Currently, only a relatively small group, consisting of around, or even fewer than, ten thousand individuals actively speak the language.
According to the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Endangered Languages, the Jeju language is listed as critically endangered, the highest vulnerability level. Only 5,000–10,000 people speak the Jeju language, all of whom are above 70–75 years of age. Without a province-wide teaching mechanism of the Jeju language for the youth, the language may be extinct within 2–4 decades, making it a language in grave peril unless a teaching-mechanism is established by either the government or an educational institution in Jeju-do.
The name is transcribed Jeju in Revised Romanization and Cheju in McCune–Reischauer. In Korean, it is known as 제주 방언 (濟州方言) Jeju bang-eon or 제주 사투리 Jeju saturi "Jeju dialect", as 제주어 (濟州語) Jejueo "Jeju language", or as 제주말 Jejumal "Jeju speech". The last term, mal means "language".
Although many South Koreans, including those who speak Jeju, consider it a dialect of the Korean language, it can be considered a separate language because it is mutually unintelligible with the Korean dialects on the mainland. Japanese and Mongolian are also incorporated into Jeju, indicating further separation from Standard Korean. Jeju is characterized by a heavy accent containing many informal words and phrases, considered to be Korean slang. It has been recognized as a distinct language locally and by UNESCO. Glottolog also classifies it as a distinct language. Government support of this language is provided through the Jeju Ministry of Education, and institutional support is provided by the Jeju Preservation Society.
There are around 5,000–10,000 fluent speakers today. Jeju was once spoken across Jeju Island, apart from the Chuja islands in the former Bukjeju County (currently Jeju City), where the Chuja dialect, a variety of the Jeolla dialect, is spoken. It also survives in diasporic enclaves in Japan.
Domestic efforts have been carried out in an attempt to revitalize the language, such as the publication of a Jeju-eo-to-Korean dictionary and the establishment of the Jeju Development Institute. However, it has been difficult to see progress due to a widening cultural and generational gap.
The phonetic properties of obstruents in Jeju dialect are similar to Seoul Korean. The unintelligibility of Jeju comes in larger part from other components of grammar such as morphosyntactic and/or lexical differences, as well as differences in the vowel system.
There are 9 vowels:
|i ㅣ||ɨ ㅡ||u ㅜ|
|e ㅔ||ə ㅓ||o ㅗ|
|ɛ ㅐ||a ㅏ||ɒ ㆍ|
Jeju maintains the arae-a vowel ㆍ [ɒ], which has been lost from standard Korean.
Presumably pronounced similar to modern ㅓ, but with less opening at the back of the throat.[clarification needed]
Theㆍvowel formed a medial of its own, or was found in the diphthong ㆎ arae-ae, written with the dot under the consonant and ㅣ to its right.
This vowel is not entirely obsolete outside of Jeju, as it can be found in various brand names. It is often just an aesthetic replacement for the ㅏ vowel in standard Korean.
- Middle Korean *kj > Jeju [t͡ɕ] (e.g. *kjər > [t͡ɕəl] 'wave')
- Middle Korean *əːj > Jeju [i] (e.g. *kəːj > [ki] of [kiŋi] 'crab')
A notable difference between Jeju and the dialects of mainland Korea is a lack of speech formality or honorific deference. For example, while a speaker of the Gyeonggi dialect might say 안녕하세요 annyeong haseyo ("Hello") or 반갑습니다 ban'gapseumnida ("Pleasure to meet you") to an older person, a speaker of the Jeju dialect would say 반갑수다 ban'gapsuda, which would be roughly equivalent to "Howdy" or "Nice ta meet ya" in Gyeonggi dialect. In mainland Korea, it would be inappropriate for a child to say this to an adult, but this usage is normative in Jeju. This is also what caused a further division of language between Jeju island and mainland Korea; Jejueo was dubbed inferior to the standard Korean because of its casual tone and lack of the formal morphemes such as 요 (yo) in 안녕하세요 (an-nyong ha-sae-yo "hello").
Jeju preserves many archaic words which have been lost elsewhere, and has borrowed foreign words that are not found in standard Korean. Many words come from the Japanese, Chinese, Manchu and Mongolian languages.
|ᄒᆞᆫ저옵서예||hɒnjeo opseoye||"Welcome!" (literally "Come quick!")|
|아방||abang||"father"||Cognate with Standard Korean abeoji "father" and South Gyeongsang dialect aba "father."|
|하르방||hareubang||"grandfather; old man"|
|할망||halmang||"grandmother; old woman"||Added after many shamanistic deities, such as Samseung Halmang, Jeoseung Halmang, and Seolmundae Halmang.|
|가시아방||gasiabang||"father-in-law" (of a man)||From Middle Korean gas "wife" + genitive suffix -ɒy + Jeju dialect abang "father," i.e. "wife's father."|
|오라방||orabang||"elder brother" (of a woman)|
|그디||geudi||"there"||Jeju language uses -di instead of -(eo)gi to form locational deictic pronouns|
|하영||hayeong||"much, lots"||From Middle Korean 하다 hata "many."|
|ᄀᆞ를||gɒreul||"powder, flour"||Cognate with Standard Korean garu "powder, flour."|
|ᄀᆞ슴||gɒseum||"material, stuff"||Cognate with Standard Korean gām "material, stuff."|
|ᄉᆞ나이||sɒnai||"man"||Cognate with (somewhat vulgar) Standard Korean sanai ~ sanae "man, adult male human; husband."|
|지집빠이||jijib-bbai||"woman"||Cognate with Standard Korean gyējibai ~ gyējibae "girl," from Korean gyējib "woman, female" + Korean ai ~ ǣ "child."|
|사롬||sarom||"person"||Cognate with Standard Korean saram "person"|
|낭||nang||"tree, shrub, wood"||Stem of the word for "tree, shrub, wood" was namg- in Middle Korean|
|송키||songki||"vegetable"||Jeju songki is similar to Manchu sogi "vegetable"|
|노리||nori||"Siberian roe deer"|
|도치||dochi||"ax"||The word for "ax" appeared variously as dosguy, dosgeuy, or dochɒy in Middle Korean|
|오름||oreum||"mountain, hill, (esp.) parasitic cone"||Jeju dialect oreum or orɒm is similar to Mongolian ūla ("mountain") and Manchu alin ("mountain"). Although it rather sounds closer to the literal meaning of oreum itself, oreum literally means "an elevation" or its implied meaning: "an elevated space."|
|고고리||gogori||"ear of grain"|
|굴레||gulle||"(rarely) mouth"||Possibly cognate with Japanese kuti ("mouth").|
|ᄂᆞᆷ삐 or 무수||nomppi or musu||"radish"||Jeju dialect musu is cognate with Middle Korean muu, descended from Middle Korean mwuzwu. Note similarity with Manchu mursa ("large, white, globular Chinese radish"). The etymology of Jeju dialect nombbi is obscure.|
|대비||daebi||"sock"||Jeju language daebi < Japanese tabi ("traditional Japanese socks")|
|주리||juri||"change (at the end of a monetary transaction)"||Jeju language juri < Japanese tsuri (id.)|
|절||jeol||"wave"||Jeju language jeol < Middle Korean gyeol (id.); cognate with the second syllable of Standard Korean mul-gyeol|
|바당||batang||"sea"||Cognate with Standard Korean bata "sea, ocean"|
|절간||jeolgan||"Buddhist temple"||Compare with Standard Korean jeol "Buddhist temple."|
|개역||gaeyeok||"powder of roast grain"|
|모물, 모몰, 모믈||momul, momol, momeul||"buckwheat"|
|가사||gasa||"umbrella"||Possibly cognate with Japanese kasa ("wide-brimmed hat; umbrella, parasol") or Middle Korean kat ("hat").|
|몽댕이||mongdaeng-i||"walking stick, staff"||Jeju language mongdaeng-i is cognate with Korean 몽둥이 mongdung-i ("club, cudgel, baton, stick").|
|ᄆᆞᆫ딱||monttak||"all, everything"||Cognate with Korean 모두 modu ("all")|
|정지||jeongji||"kitchen"||The word jeongji is not unique to Jeju language, as it is also used in Gyeongsang and Jeolla dialect speaking regions.|
|ᄒᆞ꼼, ᄒᆞ끔||hokkom, hogkkeum||"a small quantity; a little"|
|테우리||teuri||"rancher"||'Teuri' can refer to Jeongsunam, the shamanistic deity of ranching.|
The locative case marker may inflect irregularly with some specific nouns. For example:
- -ey: patang-ey (pata-ey in Korean), sisang-ey (seysang-ey)
- -ley: holu-ley (halwu-ey), mali-ley (malwu-ey)
- -i: cip-i (cip-ey), pam-i (pam-ey)
- -ti: pas-ti (path-ey), swos-ti (swoth-ey)
The following are the tense markers in Jeju and Korean:
|past||앗/엇 (as / es)||았/었 (ass / ess)|
|present||아ᇝ/어ᇝ (ams / ems)||ㄴ/는 (n / nun)|
|future||크/으크 (khu / ukhu)||겠 (keyss)|
The conjunctive ending 엔 (고 in Korean) may appear in the form of a change in the verb ending.
|어멍은 집이 갓젠 헷저.||어머니는 집에 갔다고 했다.||(Someone) said that mother went home.|
Though Jeju language has speech levels, their distinction is more simple and even unclear in many cases, while Korean honorific system is quite strict. In Jeju, a speech level of a sentence is expressed with suffixes, and the honorific infix -si- is not used. Many researchers classify it into three levels: polite, casual, and impolite. The casual level can be used on a speech in almost any normal situation.
- Jeju at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Jejueo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
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- "About the Jeju-eo Talking Dictionary". talkingdictionary.swarthmore.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- Cho, Taehong; Jun, Sun-Ah; Ladefoged, Peter (2002). "Acoustic and aerodynamic correlates of Korean stops and fricatives". Journal of Phonetics. 30 (2): 193–228. doi:10.1006/jpho.2001.0153.
- Cho, Taehong; Jun, Sun-Ah; Jung, Seung-Chul; Ladefoged, Peter (2001). "The Vowels of Cheju". Korean Journal of Linguistics. 26 (4): 810–816. ISSN 1229-4039.
- Suyeon, Ju. (2014). "Jeju Island Dialect." Student Advocates for Language Preservation.Retrieved from http://www.studentlanguagepreservation.org/jeju-island-dialect.html
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- Kang, Yeng-pong (강영봉) (2014). "제주 방언". 민속박물관 (in Korean).
|Jeju language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- 제주어 표기법 (Jeju dictionary orthography) at Wikisource
- Computer input for hangul syllabic blocks containing arae-a
- ELAR archive of A multi-modal documentation of Jeju conversations
- Yang, Changing; O'Grady, William; Yang, Sejung (Mar 2017). "Toward a linguistically realistic assessment of language vitality: The case of Jejueo". Language Documentation & Conservation. 11: 11. hdl:10125/24727.