|History and description of|
|Development of vowels|
|Development of consonants|
Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many varieties of English, especially North American, Australian and New Zealand English, by which the consonant phoneme /t/ placed between vowels is pronounced as a voiced flap under certain conditions. In some cases, the effect is perceived by some listeners as the replacement of a /t/ sound with a /d/ sound; for example, the word butter pronounced with flapping may be heard as "budder". Rather, /t/ in such positions is pronounced as an alveolar flap [ɾ], a sound produced by briefly tapping the alveolar ridge with the tongue. In North American English, /d/ in such positions is also frequently pronounced as a flap, making latter and ladder sound almost identical. Also, in similar positions, the combination /nt/ may be pronounced with a nasalized flap, making winter sound similar or identical to winner.
The terms flap and tap are often used synonymously, although some authors make a distinction between them. When the distinction is made, a flap involves a rapid backward and forward movement of the tongue tip, while a tap involves an upward and downward movement. Linguists disagree on whether the sound produced in the present process is a flap or a tap, and by extension on whether it is better called flapping or tapping, while flapping has traditionally been more widely used. Derrick & Gick (2011) identify four types of sounds produced in the process: alveolar tap, down-flap, up-flap, and postalveolar flap (found in autum, Berta, otter, and murder, respectively).
Flapping of /t/ and /d/ is a prominent feature of North American English. Some linguists consider it obligatory for most American dialects to flap /t/ between a stressed and an unstressed vowel. Flapping of /t/ also occurs in Australian, New Zealand and (especially Northern) Irish English, and more infrequently or variably in South African English, Cockney, and Received Pronunciation.
The exact conditions for flapping in North American English are unknown, although it is widely understood that it occurs in an alveolar stop, /t/ or /d/, when placed between two vowels, provided the second vowel is unstressed (as in butter, writing, wedding, loader). Across word boundaries, however, it can occur between any two vowels, provided the second vowel begins a word (as in get over [ɡɛɾˈoʊvɚ]). This extends to morphological boundaries within compound words (as in whatever [ˌwʌɾˈɛvɚ]). In addition to vowels, segments that may precede the flap include /r/ (as in party) and occasionally /l/ (as in faulty). Flapping after /l/ is more common in Canadian English than in American English. Syllabic /l/ may also follow the flap (as in bottle). Flapping of /t/ before syllabic /n/ (as in button) is observed in Australian English, while [t] and [ʔ] (t-glottalization) are the only possibilities in North American English.
Word-medially, the vowel following the flap must not only be unstressed but also be a reduced one (namely /ə/, morpheme-final or prevocalic /i, oʊ/, or /ɪ/ preceding /ŋ/, /k/, etc.[a]), so words like botox, retail, and latex are not flapped in spite of the primary stress on the first syllables, while pity, motto, and Keating can be. The second syllables in the former set of words can thus be considered as having secondary stress.
Word-medial flapping is also prohibited in foot-initial positions. This prevents words such as militaristic, spirantization, and Mediterranean from flapping, despite capitalistic and alphabetization, for example, being flapped. This is known as the Withgott effect.
In North American English, the cluster /nt/ (but not /nd/) in the same environment as flapped /t/ may be realized as a nasal flap [ɾ̃]. Intervocalic /n/ is also often realized as a nasal flap, so words like winter and winner can become homophonous. According to Wells (1982), in the United States, Southerners tend to pronounce winter and winner identically, while Northerners, especially those from the east coast, tend to retain the distinction, pronouncing winter with [ɾ̃] or [nt] and winner with [n].
Exceptions include the preposition/particle to and words derived from it, such as today, tonight, tomorrow, and together, wherein /t/ may be flapped when intervocalic (as in go to sleep [ˌɡoʊɾəˈslip]). In Australian English, numerals thirteen, fourteen, and eighteen are often flapped despite the second vowel being stressed. In a handful of words such as seventy, ninety, and carpenter, /nt/ is frequently pronounced as [nd], retaining /n/ and voicing /t/, although it may still become [ɾ̃] in rapid speech.
Flapping is a specific type of lenition, specifically intervocalic weakening. It leads to the neutralization of the distinction between /t/ and /d/ in appropriate environments, a partial merger of the two phonemes, provided that both /t/ and /d/ are flapped. Some speakers, however, flap only /t/ but not /d/. For speakers with the merger, the following utterances sound the same or almost the same:
|/-t-, -nt-/||/-d-, -n-/||IPA||Notes|
|at 'em||add 'em||ˈæɾəm|
|center||sinner||ˈsɪɾ̃əɹ||With pen–pin merger.|
|don't it||doughnut||ˈdoʊɾ̃ət||With weak-vowel merger and toe-tow merger.|
|futile||feudal||ˈfjuːɾəl||With weak-vowel merger before /l/.|
|heated||heeded||ˈhiːɾɪ̈d||With meet-meat merger.|
|hurting||herding||ˈhɜːɹɾɪŋ||With fern-fir-fur merger.|
|liter||leader||ˈliːɾəɹ||With meet-meat merger.|
|manta||manner||ˈmæɾ̃ə||In non-rhotic accents.|
|manta||manor||ˈmæɾ̃ə||In non-rhotic accents.|
|Marty||Mardi||ˈmɑːɹɾi||In the term Mardi Gras.|
|meant it||minute||ˈmɪɾ̃ɪ̈t||With pen–pin merger.|
|minty||many||ˈmɪɾ̃i||With pen–pin merger.|
|neuter||nuder||ˈnuːɾəɹ, ˈnjuːɾəɹ, ˈnɪuɾəɹ|
|parity||parody||ˈpæɹəɾi||With weak-vowel merger|
|rated||raided||ˈɹeɪɾɪ̈d||With pane-pain merger.|
|router||ruder||ˈɹuːɾəɹ||With yod-dropping after /ɹ/.|
|seating||seeding||ˈsiːɾɪŋ||With meet-meat merger.|
|set it||said it||ˈsɛɾɪ̈t|
|traitor||trader||ˈtɹeɪɾəɹ||With pane-pain merger.|
|Tudor||tutor||ˈtuːɾəɹ, ˈtjuːɾəɹ, ˈtɪuɾəɹ|
|waiter||wader||ˈweɪɾəɹ||With pane-pain merger.|
|whiter||wider||ˈwaɪɾəɹ||With wine–whine merger.|
In accents characterized by Canadian raising, such words as riding and writing may be flapped yet still distinguished by the quality of the vowel: riding [ˈɹaɪɾɪŋ], writing [ˈɹʌɪɾɪŋ]. Vowel duration may also be different, with a longer vowel before /d/ than before /t/, due to pre-fortis clipping.
- Since North American English normally lacks the distinction between /ɪ/ and /ə/ in unstressed positions, there is variability among linguists and dictionaries in the treatment of unstressed vowels pronounced as /ɪ/ in other varieties of English that have the distinction. They are usually identified as /ɪ/ before palato-alveolar and velar consonants (/ʃ, tʃ, dʒ, k, ɡ, ŋ/) and as /ə/ elsewhere.
- E.g. in Fox (2011:158).
- Ogden (2009), p. 92.
- Ladefoged & Johnson (2011), pp. 175–6.
- Wells (1982), p. 249.
- de Jong (1998), p. 284.
- Shockey (2003), p. 29.
- Derrick & Gick (2011), pp. 309–12.
- Goldsmith (2011), p. 191.
- Shockey (2003), p. 30.
- Trudgill & Hannah (2008), pp. 24, 30, 35, 104.
- Hickey (2007), p. 115.
- Goldsmith (2011), pp. 191–2.
- Hualde (2011), p. 2230.
- Hayes (2009), p. 143.
- Boberg (2015), p. 236.
- Jones (2011), p. xi.
- Brinton & Fee (2001), p. 428.
- Wells (1982), p. 248.
- Tollfree (2001), p. 57–8.
- Wells (1982), p. 251.
- Wells (2008), p. xxi.
- Hayes (1995), pp. 14–5.
- Wells (2011).
- Vaux (2000), p. 5.
- Bérces (2011), pp. 84–9.
- Ladefoged & Johnson (2011), pp. 74–5.
- Wells (1982), p. 252.
- Vaux (2000), pp. 4–5.
- Goldsmith (2011), p. 192.
- Horvath (2004), p. 635.
- Vaux (2000), p. 7.
- Vaux (2000), pp. 6–7.
- Iverson & Ahn (2007), pp. 262–3.
- Hayes (2009), p. 144.
- Wells (1982), p. 250.
- Hayes (2009), pp. 144–6.
- Gussenhoven & Jacobs (2017), p. 217.
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