English in Barbados
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Higher category: Language
Barbadian English or Bajan English is a dialect of the English language as used by Barbadians (Bajans) and by Barbadian diasporas. It should not be confused with Bajan Creole, which is an English-based creole language.
Barbadian English is very rhotic and full of glottal stops. It is also very ubiquitous for the first vowel in price or prize.[clarification needed] One example of Barbadian English would be the pronunciation of departments, which is IPA: [dɪˈpaːɹʔmənʔs].
- The realization of the KIT vowel // in Barbadian English is pretty much the same as in American English, the default [ɪ].
- The DRESS vowel // is [ɛ].
- The TRAP vowel // is usually [a].
- The LOT vowel // is usually [ɑ] or [ɒ].
- The STRUT vowel // is the same as in the US English, [ʌ].
- The FOOT vowel // is [ʊ].
- The FLEECE vowel // is [iː].
- The FACE diphthong // varies by region and education/class: it manifests in educated speech generally as [eː] or sometimes [eɪ], and in rural and uneducated speech as the vowel [ɛ].
- The PALM vowel // is mostly [aː].
- The THOUGHT vowel // is [ɑː] or [ɒː].
- The GOAT diphthong // is generally [oː] or [oə].
- The NEAR diphthong // and the SQUARE diphthong // are both [eːɹ].
- The START vowel // is [aːɹ].
- The NORTH vowel // is usually [ɑːɹ] or [ɒːɹ].
- The FORCE diphthong // and the CURE diphthong // are both usually [oːɹ].
- The BATH vowel // is mostly [aː].
- The CLOTH vowel // is mostly [ɒː].
- The NURSE vowel // is [ɤ].
- The GOOSE vowel // is mostly [uː].
- The PRICE/PRIZE diphthong // is generally [ʌɪ].
- The CHOICE diphthong // is either [ʌɪ] or [oɪ].
- The MOUTH diphthong // is [ʌʊ].
- The final HAPPY vowel // is pretty much alike the FLEECE vowel [iː].
- The final LETTER vowel // is [ɤ].
- The final HORSES vowel // is [ɪ].
- The final COMMA vowel // is [ə].
- The TRAP and LOT vowels are not merged in Barbadian English. However the vowels of LOT, CLOTH and THOUGHT are generally merged.
- Schneider, E.W.; Kortmann, B. (2004). A Handbook of Varieties of English: Morphology and syntax. Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110175325.
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