Allied Democratic Forces insurgency
|Allied Democratic Forces insurgency|
|Part of Kivu conflict|
A UNFIB soldier during an operation against the ADF in Beni.
International financial backers
Various Jihadi groups (Ugandan and MONUSCO claim)
Sudan (1990s; currently unknown)
|Commanders and leaders|
|James Aloizi Mwakibolwa||Frank Kithasamba|
|Casualties and losses|
17+ killed (at least 15 Tanzanian, 1 Malawian, 1 South African)
3,353+ people killed (including civilians, soldiers and rebels)|
The Allied Democratic Forces insurgency refers to the ongoing conflict waged by the Allied Democratic Forces in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, against the governments of those two countries. The insurgency began in 1995, intensifying in 2013, resulting in hundreds of deaths. The ADF is known to currently control a number of hidden camps which are home to about 2,000 people; in these camps, the ADF operates as proto-state with "an internal security service, a prison, health clinics, and an orphanage" as well as schools for boys and girls.
The ADF was formed by Jamil Mukulu, an ultra conservative Ugandan Muslim, belonging to the Tablighi Jamaat group. Mukulu was born as David Steven and was baptised as a Catholic, later converting to Islam, adopting a Muslim name and becoming radicalised. He reportedly spent the early 1990s in Khartoum, Sudan, coming into personal contact with Osama bin Laden.
ADF merged with the remnants of another rebel group, the National Army for the Liberation of Uganda (NALU), during the years following the fall of Idi Amin. ADF-NALU's initial goal was to overthrow Ugandan president's Yoweri Museveni government, replacing it with an Islamic fundamentalist state. The group went on to recruit former officers of the Ugandan army, as well as volunteers from Tanzania and Somalia. Funded by the illegal mining and logging industries of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, ADF created 15 well organised camps in the Rwenzori Mountains, located in the DRC-Uganda border areas. The insurgence remained unaffected by government amnesty and talk efforts, as members married local women.
According to intelligence sources, ADF has collaborated with al-Shabaab and Lord's Resistance Army. Receiving training and logistic support, with limited direct involvement from al-Shabaab's side. Other alleged sponsors of the faction include Sudanese Islamist politician Hassan al-Turabi and former DRC president Mobutu Sese Seko.
Formed in 1989, ADF carried out its first attacks in 1995. The conflict gradually intensified, culminating in the 1998 Kichwamba Technical College attack, which left 80 people dead, with 80 more being abducted. By 2002, continuous pressure from the Ugandan Army forced ADF to relocate most of its activities into the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo. The insurgency continued on a smaller scale until 2013, which marked a resurgence of ADF activity, with the group launching a recruitment campaign along with numerous attacks.
A report of The Congo Research Group at New York University, released in September 2017, indicted the Congolese Army commanders of orchestrating the massacres in Beni from 2014 to 2016. It cited multiple witnesses saying that army commanders, including the former top general in the zone, supported and in some cases organized the killings. Sources told it that during some massacres, soldiers secured the perimeter so that victims could not escape. It stated that the first massacres were orchestrated in 2013 by former leaders of the rebel group Popular Congolese Army (APC), which fought in the Congo War of 1998-2003 to create a new rebellion and undermine confidence in the central government of DRC. These rebels were working with ADF per the report. However, when the massacres began, the army commanders co-opted many of the networks of the local militias to weaken their rivals.
On 13 November 1996, ADF perpetrated its first large-scale attack on the towns of Bwera and Mpondwe-Lhubiriha in Kasese district, Uganda. Approximately 50 people were killed in the attack. 25,000 people fled the towns, before they were recaptured by Ugandan troops.
On 20 February 1998, ADF abducted 30 children, in the aftermath of an attack on a Seventh-Day Adventist College in Mitandi, Kasese district.
In August 1998, 30 people were killed in three separate bus bombings, perpetrated by ADF.
Between 10 April 1999 - 30 May 1999 ADF carried out seven attacks, resulting in 11 dead and 42 wounded.
On 9 December 1999, ADF attacked the Katojo prison facility, releasing 360 prisoners held for terrorism.
2007 to 2008
During March 2007, the UPDF engaged ADF groups in multiple firefights, killing at least 46 in Bundibugyo and Mubende districts. The biggest battle occurred on March 27, when the UPDF faced an estimated 60 ADF troops and killed 34, including three senior commanders. The UPDF claimed to have retrieved numerous weapons as well as documents that tie the ADF to the LRA.
Ceasefire and amnesty talks between the government of Uganda and the ADF were held in Nairobi starting in May 2008. Negotiations were complicated by the fragmentation of the ADF's leadership. Non-combatant dependents of the ADF were repatriated to Uganda by the IOM. At least 48 ADF fighters surrendered and were given amnesty. As the threat from the LRA in the DRC waned, the UPDF put increasing focus on the ADF as a reason for UPDF personnel to remain in the DRC.
On 4 December 2007, 200 ADF and NALU militants surrendered to Ugandan authorities.
Between February–March 2012, over 60 ADF insurgents were arrested within Uganda.
In April 2013, it was reported that ADF started a recruitment campaign in Kampala and other parts of the country. Citing a defector from ADF, "allAfrica" reported that some 10 new recruits joined ADF forces every day.
In July 2013, the ADF renewed its fighting in the Congolese district of Beni. According to the UN Radio Okapi, the ADF together with the NALU, fought a pitched battle with the FARD, briefly taking the towns of Mamundioma and Totolito. On July 11, the ADF attacked the town of Kamango, triggering the flight of over 60,000 refugees across the border into the Ugandan district of Bundibugyo.
Early in September 2013, regional leaders under the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) asked the recently formed combative Intervention Brigade under MONUSCO to attack positions of foreign negative forces operating in DRC, including the ADF.
On 23 October 2013, ADF guerrillas abducted 26 people from the village of Upira, North Kivu, later transferring them to the rebel strongholds of Makembi and Chuchubo.
In the period between November 2012 and November 2013, ADF carried out 300 kidnappings.
On 14 December 2013, 13 people were killed, in the aftermath of an ADF attack on the Musuku village, Uganda.
On 15 December 2013, ADF killed eight people in the Biangolo village, Uganda.
On 29 December 2013, ADF rebels launched another attack on the city of Kamango. The ADF militants beheaded 21 civilians and urged the residents of the city to flee to Uganda.
On 17 January 2014, the Congolese army drove ADF militants soldiers out of the city of Beni, with the aid of UN's “Intervention Brigade” peace corps.
On 17 February 2014, a Congolese army spokesman announced that the military had killed 230 ADF rebels in the aftermath of a monthlong offensive, 23 FARDC soldiers were also killed in the operation.
On 23 March 2014, South African helicopters struck ADF forces for the first time, in support of Operation Sukola 1.
Between 5–8 October 2014, ADF militants killed 15 people, within the North Kivu province, DRC.
On 15 October 2014, ADF rebels killed 27 people in an attack on villages, located outside Beni.
On 18 October 2014, ADF insurgents killed over 20 people, in an attack on the village of Byalos, DRC.
On 31 October 2014, a crowd stoned to death, burned and then ate a suspected ADF insurgent in the town of Beni. The incident came after a number of ADF raids, that brought the October's civilian death toll to over 100 people.
On 20 November 2014, rebels disguised as Congolese soldiers killed between 50 and 80 people near Beni.
On 8 December 2014, militants hacked to death 36 civilians in the vicinity of Beni.
On 26 December 2014, an ADF attack resulted in the deaths of 11 people, in the village of Ndumi, Ituri.
On 4 January 2015, a joint MONUSCO - FARDC offensive forced ADF militants out of the Mavure village, North Kivu. One rebel was killed, as government forces seized large amounts of drugs and training materials.
On 9 March 2015, ADF rebels killed one and injured two civilians in the area of the Semliki bridge, North Kivu.
On 15 April 2015, an ADF attack on the villages of Matiba and Kinzika, Beni-Mbau sector, DRC, led to the deaths of 18 people.
On 23 April 2015, ADF rebels massacred five civilians in the village of Kalongo, 6 km northwest of Oïcha.
On 30 April 2015, the Ugandan media reported that the ADF's leader, Jamil Mukulu, had been arrested in Tanzania.
On 8 May 2015, suspected ADF guerrillas attacked the Matembo neighborhood of the town of Mulekere, North Kivu. Seven people were slain in the attack bringing the region's 2015 death toll to over 300 casualties.
In early December 2015, the ADF seized a MONUSCO base in North Kivu, killing a Malawian UN soldier in doing so. South African UN forces later retook the base, attacking with Rooivalk attack helicopters.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)
29 February - Thirteen civilians were killed by suspected Ugandan rebels in the Beni territory in eastern DRC. The killings took place in the village of Ntombi, located about 40 km northeast of Beni, an area massacres and recurrent attacks attributed to Allied Democratic Forces, a rebel group opposed to the Ugandan government and is considered a terrorist organisation.
20 March - A priest of the Congregation of Caracholine Nyamilima was shot and critically wounded like his driver and a child present in the same car. The attackers was the Allied Democratic Forces, a rebel group opposed to the Ugandan government and is considered a terrorist organisation
In early May 2016, assailants from the ADF armed with machetes hacked at least 16 civilians to death in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The ADF has been blamed for the Beni massacre.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)
7 October - ADF fighters ambush a group of state officials near Beni, killing 22.
2 February - Three people were killed in an attack by rebels of the ADF who also looted a hospital in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
3 March - Six people were shot dead and another was stabbed to death in a raid by ADF rebels in the village of Eringeti in Democratic Republic of Congo's North Kivu province.
5-6 March - Twenty people were killed in several attacks by the ADF in the province of North Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo. More than 15 others were reported missing after the attacks and probably kidnapped by the attackers.
4 October - ADF militants attacked an army outpost in Beni, Democratic Republic of Congo killing at least 6 people.
3 November - Allied Democratic Forces Rebels killed at least 7 people and abducted 15 others including 10 children in raids and attacks in the DRC's North Kivu province.
22 November - Unidentified rebels, presumed to be ADF militants, open fire on a UN helicopter near the Ugandan border in eastern DRC. UN forces return fire before retreating back to base. Although the helicopter is damaged, there are no recorded casualties. 
11 December - ADF insurgents bypass Congolese army units and launch a second nighttime attack on Oicha, killing nine civilians and looting several homes.
23 December - ADF forces attack the village of Masiani, just outside Beni, DRC, killing four civilians and a soldier. Three civilians are wounded.
7 January - ADF insurgents launch an attack on a market in the village of Mavivi, just north of Beni. Eight civilians (five of them children) are killed outright and at least two others later die of their injuries. Dozens of homes and farms are looted.
9 January - ADF insurgents attack a Congolese army outpost in Beni. Three Congolese soldiers and seven civilians are killed in the resulting gun battle. An additional two Congolese soldiers are wounded.
- "Security Crisis As Uganda Faces ADF Insurgency". 18 March 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "THE BENI KILLINGS: OUR FINDINGS". Congo Research Group.
- Alexandra Johnson (11 October 2017). "The Allied Democratic Forces Attacks Two UN Peacekeepers in the DRC". Center for Security Policy. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
- Daniel Fahey (19 February 2015). "New insights on Congo's Islamist rebels". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- Wikileaks Cable: Government Demands Action Against Ugandan Rebels In Congo. Embassy Kampala (Uganda): Wikileaks. 2007-04-03. Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- Kristof Titeca (27 September 2016). "Jihadis in Congo? Probably not". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- "ADF-NALU's Lost Rebellion" (PDF). 19 December 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "The Rise of ADF-NALU in Central Africa and Its Connections with al-Shabaab". Jamestown Foundation. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Army denies death of ADF commander". 29 July 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "Congo army attacks Ugandan Islamist rebels in lawless east". 17 January 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "At Least 15 U.N. Peacekeepers Are Killed in Congo". The New York Times. 8 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- Helfrich, Kim. "Malawian soldier killed and another wounded in latest DRC rebel attack - defenceWeb". Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "SA soldier killed as Congo rebels mount dawn attack on base - HeraldLIVE". Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "ACLED Version 6 (1997–2015)". Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project. Archived from the original on 2016-01-18. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "Rebels kill 15 peacekeepers in Congo in worst attack on U.N. in recent". 8 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017 – via Reuters.
- "Realtime Data (2016)". ACLED. Archived from the original on 2016-01-18. Retrieved 2017-12-10.
- "Realtime Data (2017)". ACLED.
- "ACLED Data (2018)". ACLED. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- "Uganda's heart of darkness". Al Jazeera. 24 December 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "UGANDA: IRIN Special Report on the ADF rebellion". 8 December 1999. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Candia, Steven (2013-04-11). "Uganda: Allied Democratic Forces Recruiting in Kampala, Says Defector (Page 1 of 2)". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 2014-05-19.
- Ross, Aaron. "Locked in power struggle, Congo army and militia massacred hundreds: report". Reuters.
- "Mpondwe struggles to recover after insurgency". 20 February 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "Zairean Troops Attack Uganda". 14 November 1996. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "Allied Democratic Forces". Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Wikileaks Cable: Uganda: Adf Clash With Updf Near Tourist Lodge. Embassy Kampala (Uganda): Wikileaks. 2007-04-17. Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- Wikileaks Cable: Nugandan Government Negotiations With Allied Democratic Forces. Embassy Kampala (Uganda): Wikileaks. 2008-05-16. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- Wikileaks Cable: Uganda: 2009 Country Reports On Terrorism. Embassy Kampala (Uganda): Wikileaks. 2009-12-21. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- Wikileaks Cable: Uganda: Dagne Staffdel Meetings With Mfa And Defense Ministry. Embassy Kampala (Uganda): Wikileaks. 2009-11-17. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- "Nord-Kivu: la société civile accuse les ADF-Nalu de l'exécution de 13 civils à Oïcha". Radio Okapi. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- Kambale, Juakali (2 July 2013). "16 killed in clash between DRC army and Ugandan militias". Africa Review. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- "Rebels Drive More Than 60,000 From Congo to Uganda". New York Times. AP. 14 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- newvision (2013-09-26). "ADF kill three in DR Congo". Newvision.co.ug. Retrieved 2014-05-19.
- "5 Dead In ADF Raid On DRC Health Facility". 1 October 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "Nord-Kivu: les rebelles de l'ADF-Nalu enlèvent 26 personnes à Upira". Radio Okapi. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "U.N. task force looking into one of next Congo targets: Islamist ADF". Reuters. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "ADF Kills 20, Most Victims Women And Girls". 16 December 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "ADF Forces Take Charge in Eastern DRC". 28 March 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- "Congo Military Says It Killed 230 Ugandan Rebels". New York Times. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- Wingrin, Dean. "SA attack helicopters in renewed action in the DRC - defenceWeb". Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "Rebels kill more than 20 people in east Congo village". Reuters. 18 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "Congo crowd kills man, eats him after militant massacres: witnesses". 31 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Up to 80 people killed by suspected Ugandan rebels in Congo: group". Reuters. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- "Ugandan rebels wielding machetes kill 36 people in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo". Reuters. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- "Ituri : 11 personnes tuées par des présumés ADF à Ndume". Radio Okapi. 27 December 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "Nord-Kivu: les FARDC et la Monusco délogent les ADF de Mavume". Radio Okapi. 5 January 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "Machete attack kills 23 in DR Congo". Business Recorder. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Début de l'opération militaire contre les ADF à la frontière entre le Nord-Kivu et la Province Orientale". Radio Okapi. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "Beni: 18 morts, bilan revu à la hausse de l'attaque attribuée aux ADF". Radio Okapi. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- "Beni : 5 personnes tuées par machettes par des ADF". Radio Okapi. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Fugitive Ugandan Islamist rebel leader held: report". AFP. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "Nord-Kivu: nouveau massacre à Beni, 7 morts". Radio Okapi. 9 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Sello, Lenyaro. "SA troops battle armed group in DRC, retake base". Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "RD Congo : 13 civils tués par de présumés rebelles ougandais dans l'Est". Jeune Afrique. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
- "Nord-Kivu: un prêtre catholique grièvement blessé dans une attaque attribuée aux FDLR". Radio Okapi. 20 March 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
- "Rebels kill at least 17 civilians in eastern Congo". 4 May 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "Suspected rebels hack nine people to death in northeast Congo: army". Reuters. 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
- "3 DRC soldiers killed while repelling Uganda rebels". www.herald.co.zw. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
- "Uganda says rebel attack won't deter DR Congo operation". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2018-01-17.
- AfricaNews. "Rebels kill 3 soldiers, looting clinic in eastern DRC". Africanews. Retrieved 2018-02-04.
- "Seven dead in east DR Congo raid blamed on Ugandan rebels". Daily Monitor. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
- "RDC : 20 personnes tuées par les présumés ADF à Beni". Radio Okapi (in French). 2018-03-07. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
- Press, Europa (2018-03-07). "Mueren 20 personas a causa de ataques de presuntos miembros de las ADF en el este de RDC". europapress.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-03-10.
- "Rebels kill Democratic Republic of Congo soldiers and civilians in Beni attack". thedefensepost.com. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
- "Rebels kill 7 civilians in eastern DR Congo: army". PressTV. Retrieved 2018-11-04.